Key facts and checkpoints

• Screening of asymptomatic women has shown that about 5% have bacterial UTI. 1

• About 1% of neonates and 1-2% of schoolgirls have asymptomatic bacteriuria. 2

• About one-third of women have been estimated to have symptoms suggestive of cystitis at some stage of their life.

• The vast majority of these women have anatomically normal renal tracts, are at no significant risk from the UTI and respond quickly to simple therapy. The prevalence of underlying abnormalities is estimated at around 4%. 3

• UTIs are largely caused by organisms from the bowel that colonise the perineum and reach the bladder via the urethra. In many young women infections are precipitated by sexual intercourse. Ascending infection accounts for 93% of UTIs.

• Haematogenous infection can occur sometimes, especially with the immunocompromised patient.

• All males and females less than 5 years presenting with a UTI require investigation for an underlying abnormality of the urinary tract.

• In the presence of a normal urinary tract there is no evidence that UTI leads to progressive renal damage.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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