Key facts and checkpoints

• At least 50 to 60 people per million of the population are treated for end-stage renal failure (ESRF) each year.

• Two-thirds of these are under 60 years of age.

• Approximately one-third have glomerulonephritis, 2-18% analgesic nephropathy, 10% diabetes mellitus, 7% polycystic kidney disease, 6% reflux nephropathy and 4% hypertension. ( Table 27.1 ) 3

• The commonest cause of nephritis leading to renal failure in Australia is IgA nephropathy.

• In children the incidence of chronic renal failure is quite low (1 to 2 per million of the population). 3

• Warmer climates, poorer living conditions and certain genetic predispositions are associated with a higher prevalence of renal failure.

• Renal failure should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with:

o unexplained anaemia o unexplained poor health o unusually high analgesic intake 3

• Uraemic symptoms are non-specific and usually are not recognised until the creatinine clearance is less than 20% of normal.

• CRF is characterised by the accumulation of uraemic toxins and a deficiency of renal hormones that cause dysfunction of organs other than kidneys.

• This interaction can cause phosphate retention, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone disorders such as osteomalacia.

• It is possible to identify stages of renal failure ( Table 27.2 ).

Back Pain Relief

Back Pain Relief

This informational eBook will present you with the most recent research and findings available so that you can learn more about Back Pain relief, covering as many bases as possible from A to Z.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment