Investigations

The main investigation is an X-ray, which may exclude the basic abnormalities and diseases such as osteoporosis and malignancy. If serious diseases such as malignancy or infection are suspected, and the plain X-ray is normal, a radionuclide bone scan may detect these disorders. Other investigations to consider are:

• full blood examination and ESR

• serum alkaline phosphatase

• serum electrophoresis for multiple myeloma

• Bence-Jones protein analysis

• brucella agglutination test

• blood culture for pyogenic infection and bacterial endocarditis

• tuberculosis studies

• HLA-B27 antigen for spondyloarthropathies

• ECG or ECG stress tests (suspected angina)

• gastroscopy or barium studies (peptic ulcer)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Body Language

Body Language

Is a handshake really just a mere handshake, or does it express so much more? Discover Body Language and How it Can Benefit You. You will never be in the dark again on a persons mood when you can read their body language!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment