Important clinical associations

The possibility of CRF should be monitored in patients with:

• diabetes mellitus

• hypertension

• a history of urinary tract abnormality o vesico-ureteric reflux bladder outflow obstruction

The possibility of CRF should be considered and investigated in patients presenting with:

• unexplained poor health

• hypertension

• hyperparathyroidism

• pericarditis

• urinary tract symptoms or signs o proteinuria haematuria oedema nocturia loin pain prostatic obstruction

• neurological disturbances o confusion coma peripheral neuropathy seizures

Patients with CRF may present with features of acute renal failure with the intervention of complicating factors such as:

• drug toxicity

• fluid imbalance

Urgent treatment of the following conditions, which can lead to rapid renal failure, is essential:

• progressive nephritis

• systemic lupus erythematosus

• vasculitides o polyarteritis nodosa Wegener's granulomatosis

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