History

A hallmark of early stage CRF is a non-specific history and examination, and the diagnosis is very difficult in the absence of a known past history of renal disease. The diagnosis can be established only by renal function tests. Symptoms from CRF are rare unless the creatinine clearance is less than 20% of normal and only become common when less than 10% of normal.

In patients with chronic renal disease, symptomatic uraemia may be precipitated by prerenal factors such as fluid loss from vomiting or diarrhoea, infection, antibiotic therapy especially tetracyclines, or increasing hypertension.

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