Complications of diabetes

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Complications may occur in both type I and type II diabetes even with early diagnosis and treatment (Fig 17.3). Insulin dependent diabetics still have a significantly reduced life expectancy. The main causes of death are diabetic nephropathy and vascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke). Diabetes causes both macrovascular and microvascular complications but microvascular disease is specific to diabetes. Complications are illustrated in Figure 17.3 . Special attention should be paid to the 'deadly quartet' associated with type II diabetes.

General hypoglycemia hyperglycaemia/

«.¿luatidosis d yslipidac-mia

Blood pressure effects postural hypotension hypertension per pie ra I ne rvc palsies small muscle wasting

General hypoglycemia hyperglycaemia/

«.¿luatidosis d yslipidac-mia

Blood pressure effects postural hypotension hypertension per pie ra I ne rvc palsies small muscle wasting

Peripheral [poly) neuropathy paresthesia muscle weakness ■

CVA (increased)

Eyes cataract retinopathy ocl ar palsies ^ LUr VI ierres

Heart acce erated athenoscleros s myocardial infarction (may be silent) vagal neuropathy—arrhythmias

Genitourinary

Irnpoterce aton c bladder amyotrophy (paiiÍL I wastirg)

Peripheral vascular disease nacrovaseL ar microvascular k:-.vv gangrene file:///C|/McGraw-Hill/gpseries/html/New%20Folder/GP-C17.htm (12 of 17)31/07/2006 12:21:59 AM

SMn candidiasis

* vulvo^agiriLis staphylococcal Infections rec-otlosls lipoidica

Peripheral [poly) neuropathy paresthesia muscle weakness ■

CVA (increased)

Eyes cataract retinopathy ocl ar palsies ^ LUr VI ierres

Heart acce erated athenoscleros s myocardial infarction (may be silent) vagal neuropathy—arrhythmias

Renal diabetic nephropathy unnary nfectlon

Gastrointestinal astro pa res s iarrhoea

Genitourinary

Irnpoterce aton c bladder amyotrophy (paiiÍL I wastirg)

Peripheral vascular disease nacrovaseL ar microvascular

Feet problems ischacTia [rest pair) ulcers k:-.vv gangrene file:///C|/McGraw-Hill/gpseries/html/New%20Folder/GP-C17.htm (12 of 17)31/07/2006 12:21:59 AM

ulcers gang rere

paresthesia muscle weakness reduced reflexes + paii

Fig. 17.3 The complications of diabetes

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Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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