Ayurveda the Science of Life
Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX Integrative Hendler SS, Rorvik D (eds). PDRfor Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ Medical Economics Co., 2001. Hoffmann D. The New Holistic Herbal. Dorset, UK Element Books, 1990. Kumar P, Clark M. Clinical Medicine, 5th edn. London WB Saunders, 2002. Lininger SW (ed). A-Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin interactions. California Prima Health, 1999. Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London Churchill Livingstone, 2000. Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. Sydney Elsevier, 2005. Mills S. The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine. London Penguin Books, 1991. Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary. 6th edn. Mosby, USA, 2002. Murray M. The Healing Power of Herbs. Rocklin, CA Prima Health, 1995 Newell CA et al. Herbal Medicines A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
Doshas Qualities Vata Quick thinking, creative, flexible, nervous Kapha Good endurance and stamina, heavy, stable, relaxed, tolerant taste. For example, fenugreek seed provides a bitter taste as well as astringency, and fennel seed has sweet and cooling tastes. Thus, there is more than one taste contributed by a spice (see Table 10). With regard to rasas, other spices can be explored to provide more variety. Understanding these rasas is essential to understanding and applying Ayurvedic medicine. They affect our digestion, disposition, and health. To maintain perfect balance and be well nourished, all six tastes or rasas should be part of every meal. This explains the complex spice combinations and depth of flavor in Indian foods. To harmonize the body, these tastes must be balanced in the meal according to each person's constitution or doshas. Illnesses and diseases occur when there is imbalance with foods and a person's constitution. There are three basic constitution types or doshas...
One major prerequisite for the maintenance of health is that there be optimal dietary intake of a number of chemicals the chief of these are vitamins, certain amino acids, certain fatty acids, various minerals, and water. Because much of the subject matter of both biochemistry and nutrition is concerned with the study of various aspects of these chemicals, there is a close relationship between these two sciences. Moreover, more emphasis is being placed on systematic attempts to maintain health and forestall disease, ie, on preventive medicine. Thus, nutritional approaches to for example the prevention of atherosclerosis and cancer are receiving increased emphasis. Understanding nutrition depends to a great extent on a knowledge of biochemistry.
The World Health Organisation defines good health as 'a state of dynamic harmony between the body, mind and spirit of a person and the social and cultural influences which make up his or her environment'. A considerable amount of epidemiological information has emerged to support what general practitioners have known for a long time that a common-sense healthy lifestyle not only promotes good health but also reduces the risk of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in this country, including cardiovascular disease and cancer.
The fourth great medical tradition is that of Indian medicine (53). In the sacred medical texts of Ayurvedic medicine, sin was viewed as the cause of disease, and medical knowledge was closely interwoven with religion and magic. The Caraka Samhita was the first document on Indian medicine, and the Susruta Samhita was the second great medical Sanskrit text. The Caraka Samhita described 20 sharp and 101 blunt instruments as well as an operating table. At least 500 drugs are listed along with 700 medicinal herbs including, among others, cinnamon, borax, castor oil, ginger, and sodium carbonate. The Ayurveda recommended the administration of testicular tissue (organotherapy) as a cure for impotence as well as for obesity (55).
Ayurvedic medicine is the traditional medical system in India, which has existed for over 5000 years. The term Ayurveda literally means science of life or life knowledge. PD is documented to have existed in ancient India and was called Kampavata. Similar to the TCM system, physical illness is thought to result from emotional imbalance, unhealthy lifestyle, and toxins that ultimately upset the balance of the three doshas or regulatory systems of a person (5). These three doshas are vata, which symbolizes physical movement, pitta, which represents heat, metabolism, and energy, and kapha, which stands for physical structure and balance. Although all three systems may be affected in PD, therapy focuses heavily upon treatment of the vata disturbance through oleation with massage along with enemas and ingestion of oils. Proper harmony of the three doshas is achieved by specific diet and nutrition, a number of herbs, meditation, breathing exercises, massage, and yoga poses. Stress reduction...
Ultimately we note that we appreciate the perspective of interest specialization that has made tremendous contributions to overall population health. It is precisely for this reason that in this book we bring some of these perspectives of different specialties together in order to provide the reader an opportunity to think between and within these perspectives in problem identification and problem solving in the complex environment of cities. The book does not and cannot yet outline integrated approaches that might represent the foundations of an urban health discipline , but bringing together experts in different areas to share vocabulary, methods, and perspectives represents a hope that the goal of enhancing healthy living in cities can be better articulated and achieved.
An Ayurvedic herbal combination consisting of Aegle marmelos correa and Bacopa monniera successfully treated 65 of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) under double-blind randomised conditions (Yadav et al 1989). Herbal treatment was particularly useful in the diarrhoea-predominant form of IBS, compared with the placebo. Follow-up reviews 6 months after the trial found that relapse rates were the same among all test subjects. Although encouraging, it is not certain to what extent brahmi was responsible for these results.
A systematic review of the herb's safety, published in 2005, analysed data from six electronic databases, postmarketing surveillance studies, spontaneous reporting schemes (including WHO), herbalist organisations and manufacturers (Daniele et al 2005). The review concluded that vitex is a safe herbal medicine and any adverse effects associated with its use tend to be mild and reversible. The most common adverse effects are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritis and erythematous rash. Additionally, no drug interactions have been reported.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and others involved in international health have made considerable progress in improving health in the array of developing countries by advancing the concept of essential services. These are services which are low in cost and high in yield, which target major health problems, and which can realistically be made available to almost everyone in a given population. Programmes for these services have included defining, refining and promoting these services, as well as providing technical input to countries to help improve their capacity to deliver the services. Examples of essential service programmes include the Essential Drugs Programme, the Expanded Programme on Immunization, the Global Tuberculosis Programme and the Safe Motherhood Initiative.
Illness behavior in later life. In R. H. Binstock and L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed., pp. 227-244. San Diego Academic Press. Lieberman, F., & Collen, M. F. (1993). Aging in good health A quality lifestyle for the Iater years.
It is arguable whether good health produces better cognitive abilities, or vice versa, but it is clear that poor health can lead to a loss of energy, depression, and less motivation to express oneself intellectually and socially (Perlmutter et al., 1987).
Medical examiners investigate deaths due to homicide, suicide, or accidental violence, and deaths of persons unattended by a physician, or who succumbed to a contagious disease. They also intervene in cases where death occurs amid suspicious circumstances. Examples of the latter include the sudden death of persons in apparently good health, or who die while in the custody of law enforcement officers. The medical examiner is empowered to overrule family members or legal guardians who refuse permission for an autopsy however, in cases where the cause of death becomes obvious upon preliminary review, the medical examiner, at his sole discretion, may decline the case and allow family members to claim the body without an autopsy.
In the Native American population, healing, spirituality, and culture are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, ceremonies, music, herbalism, and massage. Participation of family and friends is a large component of these healing interventions (21). Native American healing is based on wholeness, balance, harmony, and meaning (22).
While the healing effects of many phytochemicals in spices have been identified, questions still remain unanswered. Are phytochemicals by themselves the effective healing agents, or is the whole spice, as was traditionally used, the cure Can the healing property of a spice be strengthened or lessened through a synergistic effect with other spices or through a medium such as water, sugar, tea, milk, protein, or starch Does the fresh form of a spice give different healing effect than the dry form, as ginger is used in Ayurvedic healing
First, the environment may be deficient in something necessary to good health. Examples include dietary micronutrients, such as iodine or selenium. Second, a mismatch may have arisen between a particular local environment and the people now living in it. For example, migration may cause people with an ancestry long-adapted to high sunlight levels to suffer from vitamin D deficiency when they migrate to high latitudes where there is insufficient ultraviolet radiation for their pheno-type. The impact of the environment in such cases is less easy to define, because it is not always clear what corresponds to zero exposure to the environmental hazard.
Exercise is very beneficial to your health. Exercise is any physical activity that keeps you fit. Good examples are brisk walking (e.g. 2 km per day), jogging, tennis, skiing and aerobics. Aim for at least 30 minutes three times a week, but daily exercise is ideal. Go slow when you start and increase your pace gradually.
As the German recipe indicates, passionflower is considered safe for children. Dosages for children should be calculated on the basis of the child's weight. Since most adult dosages of herbal remedies assume an average adult weight of 150 lb (70 kg), a child weighing 50 lb (23 kg) can be given 1 3 of the adult dose.
Ultimately, the significance of research on infant mortality resides in the fact that few, if any, human experiences are more tragic or emotionally devastating as the death of an infant or child. At the societal level, the loss of human potential, economic or otherwise, occasioned by infant death is dramatic. Thus, the infant mortality rate (IMR) has been employed worldwide as a key social indicator (World Bank 1998), e.g., as a ''critical test'' for identifying countries as ''superior health achievers,'' (Caldwell, 1986 173), as an inverse proxy measure of development (Pattnayak and Shai 1995), and as ''a synoptic indicator of the health and social condition of a population'' (Gortmaker and Wise 1997 147).
The biomedical approach has been symbolized by the Greek hero Asclepius, the god of healing and medicine. It represents the approach to curing disease or correcting accidental imperfections or birth defects (Garman, 1996). This biomedical view of health gained favor for three centuries beginning in the 17 th century. The second view has been symbolized by Hygieia, the daughter of Ascle-pius, and represents the approach to discovery of healthy living for the purpose of achieving longevity and quality of life. This social view of health has regained favor since the mid-1970s with its emphasis on prevention rather than cure (Gar-man, 1996). Differences between the biomedical and social views of health are summarized in Table 1.1.
The search for a ''silver bullet'' that would block (or enhance) gap junctional communication without altering other ion channels or other cellular functions continues. Both environmental toxins such as dieldrin (Matesic et al., 1994) and active ingredients in herbal remedies (such as glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives found in licorice Davidson et al., 1988) appear to be potent inhibitors of at least some gap junction channel types in some systems. Although the mechanisms of action are presently unknown, the selective action reported for a and 3 glycyr-rhetinic acids on gap junction channels has led to their use in studies evaluating the effects of cell uncoupling in various noncardiac tissues (e.g., Munari-Silem et al., 1995). Certainly, the nonvolatility of these agents simplifies their application in long-term studies. However, their effects in most preparations appear to be limited to moderate reductions in junctional conductance rather than producing total blockade.
It is popularly believed that the nuclear family, consisting of mother, father, and children, is the most psychologically healthy living arrangement for children. The basis for this belief is the assumption that children need both adult male and female figures from whom they can learn sex-appropriate behavior and after whom they can pattern their interests and activities. For this reason, it is maintained, single-parent families not only place an extra burden on the parent but also create identity problems for the child. It can be argued, however, that a home situation in which the parents do not get along has a greater potential for psychologically damaging the child than a one-parent home resulting from separation or divorce. Furthermore, in most instances the children of single parents are closer to that parent than children in two-parent households are to either of their parents.
The public private distinction is central to Western liberal society, arising from the pre-eminence within the latter of individualism. A private sphere embodies areas of life in which individuals are not subject to scrutiny, restraint or interference by society. The boundary between the public and private areas requires careful policing, for the division is in a constant state of flux. The law is crucial to this policing role and, also, to the very existence of the division itself.94 Indeed, the question of the existence of the public private distinction in Western life and the problem of the sustainability of a division between the two spheres is, in essence, a debate about the limits of law. The law has little part to play in the private sphere so long as it is characterised by non-interference, nonintrusion and non-action by others.95 However, the law has a significant role as the prime motivator and regulator of human action in society in delimiting that sphere of life.
The Welfare Reform Act does provide that children and parents who would have qualified for Medicaid based on their eligibility for AFDC continue to be eligible for Medicaid, but, in the absence of AFDC, states find it necessary to use different mechanisms to identify and enroll former AFDC recipients in their Medicaid programs. This example of the overlap between the policy domains of health and welfare is typical of the ways in which policy in one domain relates to policy in other domains. The European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Protection states this relationship as follows To achieve good health, we need to look at the grass root problems poverty, social exclusion, healthcare access. We need to understand how different socioeconomic and environmental factors affect health. And then we need to make all these factors work together for good health. Good health must become the driving force behind all policy-making (Byrne 2004, 2).
Subjects were eligible for the study ifthey met the following criteria Willing to participate in the study and sign an informed consent, be a 30 years old male, have a histologically confirmed Grade II and or III PIN on biopsy serum PSA 20 ng ml, Zubrod performance status 1, adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function. Subjects were excluded from the study if they had any of the following Underwent prior experimental therapy for chemoprevention, evidence of PCA on initial evaluation (local, regional, and or distant metastasis), active systemic viral, bacterial, or fungal infections requiring treatment, a serious concurrent illness or psychological, familial, sociological, geographical, or other concomitant conditions which did not permit adequate follow-up and compliance with the study protocol, concurrent treatment with other investigational agents, were taking finasteride or T, herbal medicine or dietary supplements for prostate health, and had a...
The growing emphasis on healthy eating is drawing attention to spices as critical ingredients for not only creating tasty low-fat or low-salt foods but as a natural way for improving health and promoting wellness. Consumers prefer eating a natural food product to taking medicine or drugs. With greater research into their medical benefits, spices are becoming more attractive to consumers.
As witnessed by the search for the fountain of youth and the time-honored popularity of tales and treatments concerned with the aging process, prolongevity has been a continuing quest since the dawn of human history. Although the commercial and health literature abounds with suggestions for staying healthy, looking good, and living as long as one can, the inevitability of corporeal existence is universally recognized. Acceptance of personal mortality does not mean, however, that the human life span cannot be prolonged. But in order to achieve prolongevity, if not immortality, we first need to know what makes us age.
The presence and multiplication of a disease-causing agent, or pathogen (path'o-jen), causes an infection. Pathogens include simple microorganisms such as bacteria, complex microorganisms such as protozoa, and even spores of multicellular organisms, such as fungi. Viruses are pathogens, but they are not considered organisms because their structure is far simpler than that of a living cell and they must infect a living cell to reproduce. An infection may be present even though an individual feels well. People who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, often live for many years in good health before becoming ill.
The clinical and phenotypic similarities between aging and diabetes suggest that there may be shared biochemical pathways leading to the tissue changes. Glucose is the principal metabolic fuel for many animal species. In general, with few exceptions, the plasma glucose level in various animals is maintained within a narrow range (60-140 mg dl). It is possible that the lower limit of blood glucose levels is determined by the minimum tissue requirements of metabolic fuel, and the upper limit defines the threshold beyond which glucotoxicity limits survival of the species (Mooradian and Thurman, 1999b). Avian species, especially owls and parrots, are the exception to this generalization. These animals have high blood glucose levels in the range of 250 to 350 mg dl and yet have a relatively long life expectancy and show no signs of classical diabetic complications. The overall constancy of blood glucose levels across a wide range of animal species suggests that hyperglycemia, except in...
St John's wort is one of the few herbal medicines that has been subjected to controlled studies in order to determine the significance of its interaction with numerous drugs. Although this can be reassuring, the clinical significance of many interactions is still unpredictable because of the variable chemical composition of products.
It is important to have a complete medication list from the patient including not only prescription drugs but OTC medications, vitamins, as needed drugs, as well as herbal supplements and preparations. The medication list should be reviewed at every visit with the patient and changes made as necessary. Aspirin and aspirin containing preparations, anticoagulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), and vitamins, minerals, and herbal medications should be stopped prior to surgery. The length of cessation varies from physician to physician and individual institutional policies. Anesthesiologists are conducting research to determine exactly how certain herbals interact with certain anesthetics. They are finding that certain herbal medicines may prolong the effects of anesthesia other medications may increase the risks of bleeding or raise blood pressure (7). Certain oral hypoglycemics also need to be discontinued at some point prior to surgery, depending on the individual drug, and...
Yields the ability to make institutional decisions that change practices and policies, and build coalitions for urban health. Political knowledge produces the capacity to mobilize resources to achieve health objectives. By achieving competencies in each of these dimensions of knowledge, urban health professionals can develop the skills they need to improve the health of city dwellers.
Public health professionals working in cities should be able to identify the social determinants of the health and health behavior of residents and develop multilevel interventions to mitigate or reverse health-damaging urban conditions or behaviors (Geronimus, 2000). They should be also be able to conduct comprehensive assessments of the health of urban communities, describe the interactions between the urban physical and social environments, and explain the roles and responsibilities of various municipal sectors (e.g., education, welfare, criminal justice, sanitation, environmental protection) in health and their relationship to the public health system. Finally, they should be able to mobilize diverse urban constituencies to promote health and prevent disease at the community, municipal and regional levels.
An underlying assumption of TCNY is that more can be done in the clinical setting to promote health. Nearly 15 of the U.S. gross domestic product is spent on health care (Levit, et al., 2004). And yet, many do not receive optimal care, with a recent study revealing that those residing in the U.S. receive only about half of recommended medical care (McGlynn, et al., 2003). TCNY aims to improve the clinical encounter through a variety of interventions, providing clinicians with better access to up-to-date treatment guidelines and facilitating communication between providers and patients.
Utility is measured on a scale from 0 to 1, where 0 denotes a health state ''as bad as death'' and 1 denotes a health state ''as good as perfect health.'' Values between 0 and 1 denote degrees between these extremes. A simple interpretation of a utility for a specific health state, A, is that the utility represents the amount of time in a state of perfect health that a patient values as equal to one unit of time in state A. For example, suppose that state A has a utility of 0.7. Then 1 month in state A is equivalent in value to 0.7 months of perfect health. This interpretation leads to the idea that quality-of-life-adjusted time can be obtained by multiplying a health state duration by its utility coefficient. For example, if a patient experiences 6 months of toxicity and has a utility weight of 0.8 for time with toxicity, then the quality-adjusted time spent with toxicity is 4.2 months. This adjustment allows treatments that have different impacts on quality of life to be compared in...
A challenge for researchers of CAM is that some therapies are difficult to study in the conventional double-blind, placebo-controlled design. For instance, how does one conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of massage therapy, acupuncture, or reflexology Finally, many alternative healthcare providers would make the argument that there is no one specific therapy to treat a person with PD, but rather numerous therapies and the need for a specific life style long-term to positively impact or prevent any disease state. Eastern medicine operates on the assumption that if one supports the body, mind, and spirit by an array of healthy lifestyle behaviors and prescribed Eastern therapies, the individual will recover from or improve in his or her condition by allowing the body to heal itself. Then one could argue that in order to attempt to truly study the benefits of Eastern medical therapy and the impact upon PD, one would have to perform long-term studies using a combination of a...
The Army, Navy, and Air Force all have organizations dedicated to the health of their service members and families. The Army runs the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) located at Aberdeen Proving Ground (Edgewood), Maryland. The Army Medical Surveillance Activity (AMSA) is part of the USACHPPM, and
Not lessen their attractiveness as large antlers indicate that the males that harbor them are able to find resources to grow and carry heavy antlers, and thus indicate that they are in good health and have good genes. The extinct Irish elk possessed the largest antlers ever. They were up to 6 ft (1.8 m) in length. However, the purpose of these was not to fight. It is unlikely they could be used for this purpose as they were too big. These massive antlers seem to have evolved because of runaway sexual selection. Females prefered males with larger and larger antlers, so the antlers got bigger and bigger.
A standard chest radiograph imparts a radiation dose of about 0.2 mSv the CT study of the chest exceeds 20mSv. A mammography takes about 2 mSv. One transatlantic flight from cool New York to old, old Europe for that cultural weekend, or vice versa, amounts to 0.1 mSv of cosmic radiation. The healthy life on an Austrian high mountain pasture increases the natural exposure to up to 10 mSv year.
Today's consumers are demanding natural and organic foods with label-friendly ingredients, for maintaining a healthier lifestyle, preventing ailments, and concern for the environment. Sustainable methods of growing crops and manufacturing products without the addition of chemicals and pesticides, MSG, hydrolysed plant protein (HPP), salt, sugar, or chemical preservatives are the trend today. The organic food consumption is growing at a steady rate in the United States. The current annual growth rate for organic foods is 20 compared with the 2 to 3 growth rate for conventional foods. The younger generation, baby boomers as well as the Asian and Hispanic Americans, are the biggest consumers of natural and organic foods and beverages.
Were not fit to survive and proliferate in the tropics the harmful effects of ultraviolet light selected against them. In a similar fashion, humans with dark skin pigmentation were at a disadvantage in higher latitudes because they could not make enough vitamin D to stay healthy.
Preventive health services, which educate and enable older persons to make healthy lifestyle choices. Every year, illness and disability that result from chronic disease affects the quality of life for millions of older adults and their caregivers. Many chronic diseases can be prevented through healthy lifestyles, physical activity, appropriate diet and nutrition, smoking cessation, active and meaningful social engagement, and regular screenings. The ultimate goal of the OAA health promotion and disease prevention services is to increase the quality and years of healthy life.
Gestalt therapy shares with person-centred therapy a concern with awareness of the self, of the environment, and of the person's internal processes. Imbalances in or between these areas are experienced as needs, the person becoming aware of a 'Gestalt' in which their dominant need is differentiated as a figure against the ground of their total experiencing. The tension associated with the imbalance leads the person to satisfy the need, thereby destroying the Gestalt, which is replaced by another concerned with the person's next most dominant need. This ongoing, homeostatic process, involving the maintenance of the person's equilibrium, characterises healthy functioning. Psychological problems occur when this process is interrupted, perhaps by individuals being constantly prevented from expressing or meeting their needs with a consequent build-up of incomplete Gestalts, or unfinished business. This is likely to be associated with persistent disturbances at the 'contact boundary'...
A third pathway pertains to all kinds of negative affect often associated with experiencing stress. Constant rumination, worrying, anxiety, pessimism, depression, and anger are health compromising in the long run. Studies have shown that optimism is related to good health, whereas depression can be a precursor of sickness (Carver, 2001). The mechanism of pathogenesis operates through physiological changes, including immune suppression and blood pressure elevations. Scheier and Bridges (1995) reviewed depression and health outcomes. Depression may be a general risk factor for premature death. The evidence for mortality effects is most compelling for cardiac disease. Studies indicate that cardiac
An integrated approach to food production and consumption, environmental quality, sustainable resource use and health can be achieved by policies that promote the local production of fresh foods. This innovative approach to urban agriculture can address deficiencies in the nutrition of citizens and reduce the risk of food-borne and non-communicable diseases while simultaneously promoting food security. Food security means that all people continually have physical and economic access to enough food for an active, healthy life. This concept implies that food production and consumption are sustainable, governed by principles of equity and that the food is nutritionally adequate and personally and culturally acceptable and that food is obtained (and consumed) in a matter that upholds basic human dignity. (Pederson, et al., 2000). In the late 1970s, citizen participation was considered for the first time in relation to primary health care in the Declaration of Primary Health Care at Alma...
A second criticism of welfare theory is that there is unlikely to be any acceptable means of aggregating utilities across individuals, even if good methods of measuring utilities were available. Third, some have argued that health is a primary social good that should be treated differently than other commodities. That is, we may be happy as a society to let individuals determine what basket of consumer goods maximizes individual utility, but we may be unwilling to let individuals trade off health to improve wealth. Proponents of this view argue that health is different from other goods, since good health is frequently a precondition for enjoyment of other aspects of life. Accordingly, health is a good that everyone should be entitled to, regardless of their willingness to pay. This last view, which has been termed extra-welfarist seeks to maximize health, rather than utility, when allocating societal resources (Birch and Donalson, 2003 Wagstaff, 1991).
Kava kava is a herbal medicine also used in the treatment of anxiety and found to be effective in clinical studies (Pittler & Ernst 2002). A study that compared the effects of kava kava to valerian and placebo in a standardised mental stress test found that both herbal treatments reduced systolic blood pressure, prevented a stress-induced rise in heart rate and decreased self-reported feelings of stress (Cropley et al 2002).
Schemas concerning health and illness are particularly salient to the study of health and illness because they influence what we label and react to as pathological and how we respond to symptoms and deviations from what we consider normal. They also help influence our perceptions of good health and what we need to do to maintain it (Angel & Thoits, 1987). D'Andrade (1995), a leading cognitive anthropologist, provides a useful example of the importance of understanding illness-based schemas in determining how people make sense of illnesses. D'Andrade has carefully studied American's beliefs about illness. His work began with the traditional anthropological categorization of symptoms and illness in terms of their characteristics. For example, people find it simple to categorize specific illness in terms of such statements as you can
Spices were also commonly used to cure disease and promote health in India. The sacred Ayurvedic texts, which were formulated before 1000 BC and dealt with matters of health and medicine, make frequent reference to the use of spices. For example, the Ayurvedic system of medicine suggests that cloves and cardamom wrapped in betel-nut leaves be chewed after meals to aid digestion. In about 500 BC the physician Susruta the Second described over 700 drugs derived from spices, including cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, and peppers. Vapors of white mustard were used to fumigate the rooms of surgery patients, and sesame poultice was applied to wounds as an antiseptic.
A more general approach to DNA damage and repair can also be informative in clonal models and ex vivo studies, several of which have shown that T cells in vivo accumulate DNA damage and mutations (point and chromosomal), for example, in free-living healthy humans aged 35 to 69 years. However, when the same genetic damage endpoints were examined in a group of healthy, older than average (75-80 years) humans, genetic damage levels similar to the levels present in subjects aged 35 to 39 years were found, and significantly less than in subjects aged 65 to 69 years (King et al., 1997). These and many other data support the importance of maintenance of genomic stability, as a determinant factor promoting health and longevity. This hypothesis is supported by the results of work from others in premature aging conditions or in groups of successfully aged humans (centenarians) (Franceschi et al., 1995).
In any event, half-compost and half-native soil isn't excessive. Some really keen vegetable gardeners forgo native soil altogether and use 100 percent compost to grow incredible crops. Using solely compost is most feasible in raised beds. Roots relish it. You can get healthier, happier plants.
Mental health, like physical health, is not defined simply by the absence of symptoms. Mental health requires the presence of a healthy environment that promotes health and well-being. Mental health and multiculturalism, like science, aim to control, maximally, features of the physical or cultural environment that have adverse impacts on growth and development. Thus, behaviors such as (a) dropping out of school before completion, (b) refusing to work for a living, (c) violence to self or others, (d) criminal behavior, (e) substance abuse and dependence, and other behaviors including (f) inability to financially support self or to take responsibility for self are examples of behaviors that indicate there is a dysfunction, a failure to adapt to either the environment, the culture, or its institutions, specifically those designed to promote growth and well-being. Spiritual development and moral development are also included when mental health is defined broadly.
A widower aged 73 had lived an increasingly isolated life since retirement. His GP was called to see him as an emergency by the police, to whom he had made frequent 999 calls alleging that his neighbours were trying to murder him with gas. Apart from his obvious delusions, he was otherwise in good health. He did not believe that he was in any way unwell. He was compulsorily admitted, after a domiciliary visit from the duty psychiatrist, to a psychiatric ward under the Mental Health Act 1983. He was unwilling to take oral medication, but his symptoms partially resolved with a small dose of a depot antipsychotic injection. Although he could be discharged, he remained isolated and generally suspicious, and his community psychiatric nurse frequently had difficulty in persuading him to have his injection.
In China, the wu fu (five bats) is commonly portrayed on dishes and robes. In this case, the bats are arranged in a circle facing inward and they depict the five blessings good health, long life, wealth, love of virtue, and a peaceful death. Chinese bats are often shown in red, the color of joy, and they may carry other positive symbols such as blossoms or fruit. Bats carrying swastikas are jarring images for those unfamiliar with the underlying symbolism. In some Chinese dialects, the word for swastika sounds the same as the word for 10,000. The bat image symbolizes a blessing, but the swastika image it carries turns it into 10,000 blessings.
Eliciting the cause of a drug eruption can be challenging, especially if the patient is taking complementary medication not prescribed by a physician. It is necessary to ask explicitly whether any herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food complements are being taken to improve the general health. Substances with a potential risk of sensitization or toxicity can be the cause of drug reactions (Witkowski 2003). Urticaria, angioedema, and exanthemas due to food complements are reported in the literature (Gised 1996).
The health profile for countries in Africa and Asia during the acute phase of a conflict or war is usually identified by moderate or severe malnutrition, outbreaks of communicable diseases, and often both. Three-fourths of all epidemics of the last decade took place in the context of a CE. Epidemiological indicators show high crude mortality rates and, if disaggregated, expose the vulnerability among the populations as to age (children under 5 years and the elderly) and gender (women and female-headed households). There is a linear relationship between under age 5 childhood mortality (per 1000) and the percentage of nations engaged in armed conflict. The worst conditions and highest mortality rates are recorded among orphaned and unaccompanied children. High case fatality rates were common among malnourished children in Somalia, with measles contributing to between 50 and 81 of deaths. As such, all children in developing countries in conflict should receive measles vaccine and vitamin...
Over the years, analysts have developed many measures of benefits, and new measures will emerge to fit the needs of different kinds of studies. The earliest economic studies expressed all benefit in purely monetary terms, converting all potential benefits of an intervention into dollars, pounds, yen, francs, etc. However, researchers soon found that they could not easily express all benefits in monetary terms. For example, they could not use monetary terms to capture completely the value of saving a life (e.g., a person contributes to society in many nonmonetary ways, such as providing emotional and psychological support to friends and families), so researchers began using life-years saved as a reward for some interventions. However, life-years saved could not adequately represent the benefits of some quality-of-life-improving interventions (e.g., pain medications, walking devices) that do not save lives or the suffering caused by non-life-threatening diseases. As a result,...
Ohkusa et al. (2005) used correlation analysis to study the relationship between sales of OTC cold remedies and influenza activity in Japan. They found a poor correlation, with the adjusted r2 never rising above 0.50. However, they performed the analysis at the national level with respect to geography, as opposed to other studies discussed in this chapter, which analyzed data at the metropolitan level. Also, the study included herbal remedies in the cold remedy category, a type of medication not included in other analyses. Finally, the authors caution that their results are preliminary, and that they plan to conduct additional analyses.
In practice, nettle root preparations are often prescribed in combination with other herbal medicines, such as saw palmetto or pygeum. Representative of clinical practice, most studies have investigated the effects of nettle in combination with other herbs and have generally yielded positive results. A randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial In 2005 further demonstrated the effectiveness of saw palmetto fruit (160 mg) and nettle root (120 mg) for lower urinary tract symptoms due to prostate enlargement (Lopatkln et al 2005) 257 men aged 50 years or more were randomised to take either two capsules of the study medication (320 mg saw palmetto and 240 mg nettle root) dally or placebo for 24 weeks. Men on the treatment experienced a 35 reduction In symptoms, most notably Intermlttency, hesitancy, urgency and nocturia, compared to 24 for placebo. At the end of the 24-week period an open trial was conducted for an additional 24 weeks and all men were given the herbal...
Albizia is a traditional Ayurvedic medicine used to reduce allergic conditions, such as allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is also used for atopic conditions, such as eczema and asthma, when indicated. Controlled trials have not been conducted, so it is uncertain whether it is effective. When will it start to work
Two basically different approaches to reforming public pensions are being debated (Disney 2000). The less radical approach, referred to as ''parametric'' reform (Chand and Jaeger 1996), argues that unfunded PAYG schemes can be brought into equilibrium by making changes in a few parameters. More money available for paying pension benefits could come from either increasing taxes on the workers or by increasing the proportion of the working age population that participates in the labor force. Pension expenditures could be reduced by decreasing benefits, either by directly cutting benefits or by increasing age for pension eligibility. The approach of increasing normal retirement age has received support from some demographers who point out that that increasing life expectancy and improving health of cohorts entering old age make a fixed retirement age (such as 60 or 65) increasingly obsolete (Chen 1994 Uhlenberg 1988). The general view of those favoring parametric reform is that by making...
Standard of treatment, that of stopping rather than continuing treatment and (3) there is as great an obligation to prevent a lingering, painful, or degrading death as there is to promote health and life. However, there are a few major problems with decisions to terminate treatment. These are how and when to use available technology that could sustain the life of a patient how and when to turn upside down the traditional standard that when in doubt, treatment should be provided and how to determine when to invoke the duty of the physician to help the patient avoid a poor death. Many of these decisions can only be made with a clear understanding of the patient's whole self, his or her external and inner self, his or her spiritual dimension. Ethics is much more than politics and economics. Ethics represents our values and goes to the very core of our spiritual being. 1. Know yourself. Healthful living and stress reduction decrease need for medical care. Know the medical problems of your...
It has long been known that gastric ulcers are frequently a reaction to stress. As early as 1827 the American Indian doctor John Williams in the book The American Indian Doctor Dr. John Williams' Last Legacy, A Useful Family Herbal praised ginseng roots as an excellent medicine to alleviate inward hurts and ulcers when used in combination with other herbal drugs such as comfrey, spikenard, elecampane, camomile, angelica and fir boughs in a dilute alcoholic vehicle (Harriman, 1973). Tang and Craze in their book Chinese Herbal Medicine (1995) also refer to the use of ginseng to treat peptic ulcer due to stagnating stomach qi (or ch'i), weakness of spleen or excess heat and advise avoidance of alcohol, coffee and tea.
Pals (2005) combined the narratives of the women in the Mills study with themes parallel to those of King et al. (2000) to illustrate not only the correlation between personality on the trait level and narrative level, but also the dynamic interactive processes of trait and narrative conceptualizations of personality. Narratives from women who had participated in the longitudinal study described earlier (Helson, 1992) were coded for themes of resolution (overall resolution, positive ending, low negative ending, low lasting wounds, coherent ending) and impact on self (open response, narrative complexity, low self-distancing, acknowledged wounds, positive self-transformation, and active approach). These two dimensions were then used in conjunction with age 21 and age 52 responses to personality measures of open versus defensive coping (a combination of tolerance of ambiguity and reverse scored repression) and ego-resiliency to predict physical and psychological health outcomes at age...
Hunter College in the City University of New York combined three previously separate programs in community health education, environmental and occupational health and nutrition into a single Masters in Urban Public Health Program. Its mission is to educate public health professionals who can promote health and prevent disease among diverse urban populations. Students continue to take courses in one of the three specialization areas as well as the core public health courses and they are also required to take two courses in urban health and concepts and principles of urban health are integrated into many other courses.
To reverse these trends, it will be necessary to bring about major changes in the behavior of society as well as individuals (12). New recreational facilities are needed to promote physical activity. Safe havens for physical play are required. Schools need to spend more time in teaching healthy life habits. Parents must be made aware of how to improve the household to reduce the tendency for weight gain in the family. School lunches should be modified to be less calorically dense as well as healthier. These social issues and will require a concerted effort at local, state, and national levels.
(20) and are known to be involved in alternate metabolic pathways of common biogenic amines (21). Of the three active adrenergic molecules in C. aurantium, synephrine is present in amounts at least 100-fold greater than either octopamine or tyramine found in the fresh fruit, dried extracts, or herbal medicines (18).
(1) Basic research in imaging, bioengineering, computer science, informatics, and related fields is critical to improving health care but is fundamentally different from the research in molecular biology on which the current national research institutes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (www.nih.gov) are based. To ensure the development of new techniques and technologies for the 21st century, these disciplines therefore require an identity and research home at the NIH that is independent of the existing institute structure.
As the gatekeepers of the health care system in most areas, physicians are in a position to observe caregiving needs, to help lessen burdens, and to promote good health in the context of disease. It is helpful if physicians can be attuned to noting and, at a minimum, triaging caregiver needs. Some care-giver problems may be amenable to intervention by physicians, and others may require the input of other health professionals or support resources, including social support agencies and other individuals or groups in the community.
Preventive medicine commonly speaks of primary and secondary prevention. Primary prevention seeks to ''prevent the onset of a disease.'' Secondary prevention ''aims to identify an established disease in a presymptomatic stage in order to cure or prevent its progression'' (Rubenstein, 1996-1997, p. 48). While some primary preventive measures (e.g., those aimed at preventing hypertension or diminishing certain cancer risk factors) are quite effective, medical prevention in mental health is more likely to be secondary prevention (e.g., medication to prevent the recurrence of depression).
Invest in an HID light (Metal Halide for leafy plants - HPS for flowering & fruiting plants). I use a 400 watt metal halide lamp with reflective hood to light nearly four gardens simultaneously and with excellent results. Since HID lights aren't exactly cheap, you may choose to substitute high output fluorescents instead, but in the long run, you'll get more light output and certainly more yield with an HID lamp. Either way you grow, try to get at least 20 watts per square foot of garden for best results. I prefer 30-40 watts per square foot of garden as the extra light makes a BIG difference. On the following page I briefly describe each system you can build. I recommended the lamp sizes based on the growing area of each respective garden. If you were to illuminate more than one garden at a time, you can use this simple formula to determine your lighting requirements. Multiply your growing area width by its length and the result by 20-40 watts (depending on crop) - the result is your...
The authors of the MMAS considered many factors that might be associated with the decline in sexual interest and found that aging and its social correlates were strongly predictive of decreased involvement with sexual activity (and that) good health was associated with more involvement The authors concluded that the MMAS study, by considering men in their middle years, goes part way towards filling the gap of up-to-date normative data available to inform clinicians as to the usual levels of activity and interest of normally aging men.
Among the activities in which the DOHMH and its partners are engaged are (1) disseminating print and online materials, including a Passport to Your Health, to assist New Yorkers in tracking their vital signs (blood pressure, cholesterol, weight) and taking actions supportive of good health (2) offering screenings at municipal hospitals and through partner organizations, and providing appropriate counseling or treatment as indicated (3) promoting better screening of people who are overweight for pre-diabetes, pre-hypertension and other early indicators of
Just as the current structure of cities is the result of a complex array of laws and government policies, changes in the current situation will require a multifaceted response that includes economic incentives and creative government programs. For example, government can sometimes lead by itself becoming a model citizen, e.g., by thoughtful location and design of its own buildings so as to encourage physical activity and a healthy life style by its employees and clients.
For a long time, the general idea in western culture has been that although women may have a disposition for sexual feelings, in decent and healthy women these feelings will only be aroused by a loving husband. In women , especially in those who live a natural and healthy life, sexual excitement also
Discovering genes that could impart the ability to live to old age while compressing the period of disability toward the end of life should yield important insight into how the aging process increases susceptibility to diseases associated with aging, and into how this susceptibility might be modulated. Human longevity enabling genes are likely to influence aging at its most basic levels, thus affecting a broad spectrum of genetic and cellular pathways synchronously. The centenarian genome should also be an efficient tool for ferreting out disease genes. Comparing single nucleotide frequencies implicated in disease in centenarians with frequencies in persons with the disease should show clinically relevant polymorphisms. Another approach that researchers are in the early stages of understanding is differential gene expression in models suspected of slowing the aging process, such as caloric restriction. This might prove to be another potent tool for discovering longevity-enabling...
Theories associated with the Balance Model describe the healthy functioning of the body as a harmonious balance between two or more elements or forces within the body. Harmonious balance is also viewed as a function of both external (e.g., diet, environment, supernatural agents) and internal factors (e.g., hereditary weakness). The humoral theory represents the most widespread view of the Balance Model. The roots of humoral theory date back to China and India, and its elaboration into a system of medicine to Hippocrates (Helman, 1984). According to humoral medical beliefs, the basic functions of the body are regulated by the four bodily fluids or humors of blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Excess of yellow bile is associated with chronic anger and irritability excess of black bile with chronic sadness and melancholy excess of blood with sanguin-ity or optimism and excess of phlegm with calmness and listlessness. Each of the fluids or humors is also characterized by a...
Summary and Integration 43 CURRENT ISSUES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 44 Defining Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence 44 Healthy Functioning 45 Context 45 Comorbidity 46 Prevalence 46 Gender Differences 46 Socioeconomic Status 47 Ethnicity and Culture 47 Causal Processes 48 Continuities and Discontinuities 49 Risk and Resilience 50 IMPLICATIONS FOR TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 51 REFERENCES 51
Elderly ethnic minorities generally have greater health problems than their white counterparts. Moreover, minorities tend to have chronic disability at an earlier age than nonminorities (Hawkins & Kildee, 1990). Forty-one percent of elderly Latinos viewed themselves to be in poor or fair health, compared with 29.9 of all elderly (C. Lopez & Aguilera, 1991). Elderly Latinos also have disproportionately higher rates of disability than non-Latinos. Elderly minorities of color face serious problems in the arena of health care delivery. Many begin working at a very early age (often as young as 5 years of age) and are often employed in hard labor (factory work, farm work, or manufacturing) that leaves them with an assortment of work-related illnesses or disabilities. Access to the health care system (e.g., transportation, cost of care, communication) is another problem. Without adequate transportation, many Latino elderly have problems getting to their doctor's office, hospitals, or...
Changing eating and physical activity patterns that predispose to weight gain remains the key concern of obesity prevention strategies, as the prevention of weight gain is dependent upon balancing energy intake and expenditure. Until recently, interventions aimed at the population control of obesity have focused on improving the knowledge and skills of individuals within the community in the belief that large-scale individual change will have an impact on the population weight status. However, such programs have had only limited success because they have not engaged all sections of the community and because the environment in which eating and exercise behaviors are made is now so antagonistic to healthy lifestyle choices that even the most motivated individuals find it difficult to make and sustain appropriate changes (101). Recent analyses of the obesity problem have focused discussion on moving beyond strategies that focus solely on changing personal or community behaviors to...
What medication is the patient taking What medication is prescribed and what other remedies are they taking (e.g. herbal remedies, 'over-the-counter' tablets) Ask to actually see the medication and or the prescription list. Don't forget injections, e.g. insulin, topical treatments, inhalers (patients may not consider them to be drugs). What illicit drugs do they have they taken What is their likely compliance with prescribed medication
Vitex is used in practice with other herbal medicines to enhance fertility in women with progesterone deficiency or luteal phase defects. Currently no large studies have been published to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach however, a doubleblind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of 96 women with fertility disorders (38 with secondary amenorrhea, 31 with luteal insufficiency and 27 with idiopathic infertility) used the vitex product Mastodynon with encouraging results (Gerhard et al 1988). Treatment of 30 drops was administered twice daily for 3 months and resulted in women with amenorrhea or luteal insufficiency achieving pregnancy more than twice as often as the placebo group, with 1 5 women conceiving during the study period (n 7 with amenorrhoea, n 4 with idiopathic infertility, n 4 with luteal insufficiency). Although promising, this study has been criticised for pooling of diverse conditions, unclear reporting of results and variable significance (Ulbricht & Basch...
A preventive attitude implies that the doctor understands and can utilise the preventive potential in each primary care consultation by an 'opportunistic approach'. In addition to the traditional management of both presenting and continuing problems, the doctor takes the opportunity to modify the patient's health-seeking behaviour, to provide education about the illness, and to promote health by relating the patient's present condition to previous unhealthy behaviour.
The Emanuels' deliberative model includes the features of the interpretive model and adds a physician obligation to help the patient achieve a type of moral self-development by instructing the patient in good health-related values. In discussing complementary therapy, this model would oblige the physician to discuss the rational basis and scientific justification for medical therapy. This model embodies most of the features patients and physicians value in their relationships. The emphasis on physician values, in particular, makes explicit the basis for specific recommendations. There is no pretense that a scientific recommendation is value free. The problem with the deliberative model is its complexity. This model of physician-patient relationships goes far beyond rules of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and respect for patient autonomy (Beauchamp & Childress, 1994). The deliberative model appeals to a consideration of virtue. Virtue, as used in the context of the physician-patient...
Zelda is a 68-year-old woman in good health. However, she is worried about developing dementia because her mother died of Alzheimer's. Her physician refers her to a university research unit that evaluates the family pedigree and suggests initial genetic linkage studies. The researchers explain that their work may or may not result in a predictive result for Zelda and her family, and that a predictive DNA test may or may not be available. However, Zelda's daughter is extremely alarmed because of the costs of long-term care and because of her own potential risk, and she contacts a commercial lab advertising a DNA test for early Alzheimer's disease.
From a health provider's viewpoint, in order for effective medical treatments to have their desired effects, complying or conforming to treatments is absolutely necessary. The concept of medication management reflects this idea that the provider is responsible and in control, while the consumer is a docile body who is incapacitated by disease or condition. From the perspective of health consumers, adherence to medical treatment is enhanced when there is a good health care relationship and when consumers openly share their health beliefs and experience of illness with their provider.
A perfect use of handheld computers is to keep the patient healthy by helping them maintain a healthy lifestyle. One of the most popular programs is Diet & Exercise Assistant (www.keyoe.com). It gives sound advice on how to achieve a healthy balance by eating a varied diet and exercising.
Historical note Licorice root has been used in Europe since prehistoric times, and its medicinal use is well documented (Fiore et al 2005). References to licorice date backto approximately 2500 bc on Assyrian clay tablets and Egyptian papyri. It has been used as both a food and a medicine since ancient times. The genus name, meaning 'sweet root', is attributed to the first century Greek physician Dioscorides. The herb is also popular in traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine (Blumenthal et al 2000).
Self-correction of problems includes identifying weight-related problems, generating possible solutions and choosing one, planning and implementing the healthier alternative, and evaluating the outcome of possible behavioral changes. Patients should reevaluate setbacks in behavior and learn from them.
Virginia was over 100 years old when she entered Spruce Hill Nursing Home. Coming there was not what she wanted. However, rather than upset her daughter and son-in-law, she agreed to go. Both in their 70s, they found it tiring to travel between Florida and Ohio, supervising and arranging Virginia's home care while still having a life of their own. On the other hand, Virginia enjoyed good health. She had no problems with any of her vital functions no heart disease, respiratory difficulties, or the like. However, two broken hips had limited her mobility, and Alzheimer's disease had left her often confused and forgetful. Because she was friendly and compliant with the wishes of others, Virginia quickly became a favorite of the staff at Spruce Hill Nursing Home. As she wheeled through the facility, they would stop their work and talk to her. Virginia's smile and soft voice were a welcome contrast to many other residents.
Historical note Eating foods containing microorganisms to improve health has a long tradition. As far back as 1 908, Metchnikoff, the Nobel laureate, stated that 'ingested lactobacilli can displace toxin-producing bacteria, promoting health and prolonging life' (Elmer 2001). The term 'probiotics' was first coined in 1 965 in reference to substances produced by protozoa that stimulated the growth of other organisms. It has since been applied to those microorganisms found naturally in foods that are able to improve health by stimulating the growth of beneficial organisms. Although it has taken the most part of a century for scientists to investigate their health benefits, there are now several thousand studies on probiotics available on Medline, the majority published since 2000.
Health is a universally important aspect of human life. Years ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) (www.who.int) defined health as the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1948). A more contemporary version of this definition, with an important expansion, is provided by David Byrne (2004), the European commissioner for health and consumer protection, who views good health as a state of physical and mental well-being necessary to live a meaningful, pleasant and productive life. Good health is also an integral part of thriving modern societies, a cornerstone of well performing economies, and a shared principle of European democracies, which can readily be extended to all democracies. In fact, health is a priority in all nations, although the resources available for the pursuit of health vary widely across nations (Reinhardt, Hussey, and Anderson 2004). The reader can find current 1
Ginkgo biloba is an herbal remedy that has been utilized for thousands of years in China and elsewhere. It is obtained from the leaves and seeds of a plant that is commonly known as the maiden hair tree, believed to be the oldest living species of tree. Blumenthal, Mark, and others, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin American Botanical Council, 1998.
Assessment of palliative biliary drainage procedures is difficult since the spectrum of patients ranges from the critically ill and unresectable to those in relatively good health with potentially resectable tumors. All patients should be properly assessed by experienced personnel with a view toward possible resection. This point cannot be over-emphasized. If the patient is deemed unresectable, the diagnosis should be confirmed with a biopsy. Biliary decompression can be obtained either by percutaneous transhepatic puncture or by endoscopic stent placement. It is important to realize that these patients have a short life expectancy and any periprocedural complication extends hospital stay and consumes time. Hilar tumors are more difficult to transverse with the endoscopic technique. Moreover, the failure rates and incidence of subsequent cholangitis are high (87). Thus, most patients with unresectable hilar tumors are not candidates for endoscopic biliary drainage.
Herbal medicine made by steeping fresh or dried herbs in a solvent, typically alcohol. Because they are concentrated, tinctures are convenient to use and easy to consume. You'll use them by the drop rather than by the quart or the cup. Tinctures also store well they'll keep for five years or more in a cool, dark place.
The study was performed according to ICH GCP guidelines under the direction of the Clinical Investigator. There were no significant deviations from the study protocol that could have affected the outcome of this study. All subjects met the inclusion criteria described in the study protocol. Foreseeable risks were weighed before study initiation. Rights, safety, and well-being of the study subject were considered the most important issues, prevailing over interests of science and society. All medical care and medical decisions were given on behalf of the subjects under the full supervision of the Principal Investigator. All the subjects were in good health before the initiation of the study. The clinical results of the screened laboratory examinations (biochemistry, hematology, serology, and urine analysis) were, occasionally, outside their respective normal ranges but not to an extent to be considered clinically significant by both the Clinical Investigator and the Principal...
The elderly of the future will have considerably more time to devote to interpersonal relationships, and there will, no doubt, be an increasing interest in personal appearance. Cosmetic surgery offers opportunities to maintain a personal image based on personal preference. After the age of 80, it appears that in terms of health care individuals seem to reach a plateau, and there are no serious disabilities for at least another decade. Since the elderly will have followed healthier lifestyles, their physical condition will be superior to that of the older population of today. Older persons today exhibit what can be termed as ''premature aging,'' brought on by stress, improper diet, unhealthful living conditions and habits, and unsound work patterns. An amelioration of the total environment will not only prolong life, but will add immeasurably to the maintaining of youthfulness. In some cultures long-living men who have led healthful lifestyles are found to possess viable sperm at the...
Used within the traditional Chinese herbal medicine system, astragalus is used to invigorate and tonify Qi and the blood, as an adaptogen, for severe blood loss, fatigue, anorexia, organ prolapse, chronic diarrhoea, shortness of breath, sweating and to enhance recuperation (Mills and Bone 2000). Adaptogens are considered natural bioregulators that increase the ability of the organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. Herbal medicines with adaptogenic activity are used when extremes of physical or emotional activity are present, environmental influences are severe, or allostatic load has developed over time. The aim of treatment is to improve the patient's endurance and ability to deal with these changes in a healthy way, and for abnormal parameters to shift towards normal (see also Siberian ginseng and Glossary). A randomised, double-blind clinical trial compared the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine combination known as jian yan...
Vulnerability included physical as well as mental health and PTSD. The ndings suggest that extremely traumatic events have long-lasting effects on the victims. Men who survived demonstrated a higher prevalence of PTSD, whereas women reported greater health-related dif culties and poorer health (Wagner, Wolfe, Rotnitsky, Proctor, & Ericson, 2000). because there are more potential partners available. These objective disadvantages for widows do not necessarily translate into greater health impairment. In contrast, bereaved men are at higher risk for mental health problems, morbidity, and mortality.
Historical note Turmeric is a perennial herb, yielding a rhizome that produces a yellow powder that gives curry its characteristic yellow colour and is used to colour French mustard and the robes of Hindu priests. Turmeric was probably first cultivated as a dye, and then as a condiment and cosmetic. It is often used as an inexpensive substitute for saffron in cooking and in the 13th century Marco Polo marvelled at its similarities to saffron. Both Indian Ayurvedic and Chinese medicines use turmeric for the treatment of inflammatory and digestive disorders and turmeric has also been used in tooth powder or paste. Research has focused on turmeric's antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, in addition to its use in cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disorders (Anon 2001).
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