Working with Autistic Children

Parenting Children With Asperger's And High-functioning Autism

Mark Hutten, M.A is a practicing counseling psychologist and a professional parent-coach with experience of over 20 years in the field of High-Functioning Autism (HFA) and Asperger's. being the executive director of online parent support, LLC, Hutten presents several workshops and conducts numerous training courses for both professionals and parents dealing with HFA and Asperger's; besides, he works with hundreds of teenagers and children with HFA and Asperger's. Hutten is also an author of several articles that highlight parenting techniques based on highly effective research for dealing with children with HFA and Asperger's. The founder of the support group has published 'My out of control Child' and 'My out of control teen' eBooks. Most of Hutten's columns and articles discuss several ways of parenting young ones with conduct disorder, ODD, ADHD, Autism, Asperger's syndrome, Bipolar disorder, reactive attachment disorder, and many more conditions. The helpful parenting toolkit is all about a system that enables parents to minimize the child's meltdowns, low frustration tolerance, and tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, school-related behavior problems, social skills deficits, picky eating, attention difficulties, rigid thinking, problems completing homework, sleep problems, rituals and obsessions, and many more behavioral problems. The eBook is available for download. Read more here...

Parenting Children With Aspergers And Highfunctioning Autism Summary


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The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

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The Essential Guide to Autism

Here is just some of what you'll learn: 13 common Asd (Autism Spectrum Disorder) misconceptions and the real truth for each this information will greatly help put your mind at ease about this mysterious disorder. The three main signs of autism and how to quickly and easily recognize each. The three broad categories of autism and how to immediately tell in which category someone with autism belongs and what this means for their treatment. The 5 most recent, most accepted theories about the cause of Asds this information may surprise you. 13 questions all concerned parents should ask themselves if they think their child may have autism your responses to these questions will ensure you know what step to take next. 28 additional signs of autism youll know exactly what behaviors to look for when assessing your child or loved one. Common treatments for autism and how to know if a treatment is right for your child or loved one. 18 questions you should always ask before submitting your child or loved one for a particular treatment this information will help ensure your child receives the treatment thats right for him or her. The six most common autism treatments used today plus, whether or not it is good to combine treatments. The positives and negatives of using Applied Behavioral Analysis to treat autism and how to tell if your child is right for an Aba program. How to choose an Aba provider including four things that you should always look for before deciding upon a provider. The five steps involved in a successful Floor Time program if a program doesnt include all five of these steps then it is definitely not right for you child. The effectiveness of the most common alternative autism treatments plus, 14 things that you should always look for before selecting an alternative treatment program. How to use the diet to help control autism naturally diet experts agree that many symptoms can decrease in severity and some may even disappear with a change in diet learn more here. Supplements that have been shown to benefit those with autism and how to ensure your autistic child takes the supplements without having a battle on your hands. 6 tips for a successful supplementation program these tips will help you cut costs and ensure that your child adjusts to the program quickly and easily. How to cope with the stress of raising a child with autism this information will have you feeling better and more relaxed than you have in years. How to ensure the safety of a a child with autism follow these 12 simple tips and your childs safety is practically guaranteed. How to ensure the education needs of your child with autism are being met including seven questions that you should always ask your childs school. How to deal with an adolescent with autism follow these tips to safely navigate your way through this difficult time in anyones life. Read more here...

The Essential Guide to Autism Summary

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A Parent's Guide For Reversing Autism

Whilst best results are seen in younger children the seven step plan I have outlined in this book, including the diet, can be applied to any autistic person of any age. Step One details the gluten free/casein free diet and why it is so important for recovery to begin. It also explains why, after only 6 weeks, a particular type of cows milk can be included back into the diet. This milk has a different molecular structure than other milks. You are unlikely to hear about this milk anywhere else in the autistic community as we have been told that all casein is bad. This is simply not true. Your child may be similar to mine and have no reaction to this milk casein whatsoever. I explain how to test your child for this and other food intolerances in step one. If you have a child who is a 'picky eater' or skeptical family members, then doing step one correctly will put an end to all that. This diet is strict and has to be done properly or you will not get the results you are longing for. If you follow my recommendations for diet outlined in this chapter you could see significant improvements in your child in as little as a week.

A Parents Guide For Reversing Autism Summary

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Author: Donna Blackmore
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High-dose pyrldoxlne and magnesium supplementation Is a popular nutritional treatment In autism, although current evidence Is contradictory. A critical analysis of 12 published studies concluded that evidence generally supports the efficacy of vitamin treatment however, there were methodological shortcomings Inherent In many of the studies (Pfelffer et al 1995). In contrast, a small, 10-week, double-blind placebo-controlled trial found that an average dose of 638.9 mg pyrldoxlne and 216.3 mg magnesium oxide was Ineffective In ameliorating autistic behaviours (Flndllng et al 1997).

Childhood disintegrative disorder

Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a developmental disorder that resembles autism. It is characterized by at least two years of normal development, fol Thomas Heller, an Austrian educator, first described 3 childhood disintegrative disorder in 1908. It is a complex e disorder that affects many different areas of the child's di development. It is grouped with the pervasive develop- mental disorders (PDDs) and is related to the better r known and more common disorder of autism. Autism A developmental disability that appears Sensory integration therapy A treatment that was originally designed for children with autism. Sensory integration therapy is often performed by occupational or physical therapists its goal is to help the child with autism or CDD process information acquired through the senses (hearing, touch, taste, and smell as well as sight) more effectively. In this way CDD resembles autism. In autism, however, previously acquired skills are not usually lost. According to...

Clinical Involvement Among Carriers of Premutation Alleles of the FMR1 Gene

It is now clear that some carriers of premutation alleles do experience various forms of clinical involvement on the fragile X spectrum such involvement can include mild physical features (prominent ears, hyperflexible finger joints) (Riddle et al. 1998 Hagerman and Hagerman 2002b) and or emotional problems (Loesch et al. 1994 Franke et al. 1998 Hagerman and Hagerman 2002b, Sobesky et al. 1996). These problems, which are more likely to occur for FMR1 alleles exceeding 100 d(CGG) repeats (Johnston et al. 2001), probably reflect the moderately reduced FMRP levels found in the upper half of the premutation range (Tassone et al. 2000a, b Kenneson et al. 2001). The association between lowered FMRP levels and mental retardation (and or autism) in the premutation range was first noted by Tassone et al. (2000). Not surprisingly, these forms of mental impairment appear to be more common in male carriers, likely due to the presence of a second X chromosome and random X-inactivation in female...

Glossary Clinical terms

Aspergers' syndrome - Autism with no language delay or general intellectual impairment and a range of milder or atypical manifestations. Autism - The core triad of behaviors characteristic for autism includes impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, deficiencies in reciprocal social interaction and restricted activities and repetitive movements. Autism can be described as belonging to a spectrum of developmental disorders with overlapping clinical features. Pervasive developmental disorder - Individuals may be diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder when the criteria for autism are not reached in all domains or where atypical symptoms are present.

Relevance for vertebrate systems

To link sexual karyotype to the development of sex-specific characteristics. Arnold has proposed that regulatory genes on the X (that escape dosage compensation) and Y chromosomes may directly organize sex-specific CNS characteristics (Arnold, 2004). Indeed, there is some evidence that the Y-chromosome sex-determining gene Sry has such a role in the nervous system (Dewing et al., 2006). However, such a model may capture only one aspect of this process. It is also quite possible that sexual karyotype controls much more complex regulatory networks, such as those characteristic of C. elegans and Drosophila sex determination, that read the sex-determining signal and set into motion a cascade of interactions that only very indirectly lead to sex-specific gene expression. The potential existence of such a pathway in the mammalian nervous system has intriguing implications for the mechanisms that bring about sex differences in neuroanatomy and neural function moreover, genes in such a...

Quantitative Traits in Medicine and Agriculture

We saw in chapter 9 that susceptibility to disease is likely to be determined by defects in many genes. Autism seems to belong to that category of diseases. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder first recognized as a disease in 1943. It is already apparent during the first three years of life, expressed in lack of verbal communication, social responsiveness, and ritualized behavior. Autism affects approximately 1 child in 2,500. Over the years, several theories have been put forth to explain this disease. These include behavioral, environmental, dietary, viral, autoimmune, and genetic causes. Statistical studies have shown that occurrence of autism among siblings is 2-6 percent, a value much higher than simple chance alone, which is 1 in 2,500, or, 0.004 percent. In addition, monozygotic twins show a twenty-five-fold higher concordance for autism than dizygotic twins. These results strongly suggest that autism is a polygenic trait. An American-Australian team recently tackled the...

Causes and symptoms

Although Henry Maudsley, in the late 1800s, was the first psychiatrist to focus on very young children with mental disorders, it was the psychiatrist Leo Kanner who coined the phrase early infantile autism in 1943. Kanner believed that the parents of children with autistic behaviors were emotionally cold and intellectually distant. He coined the term refrigerator parents to describe them. His belief that parental personality and behavior played a powerful role in the development of autistic behaviors left a devastating legacy of guilt and self-blame among parents of autistic children that continues to this day. Recent studies are unequivocal, however, in demonstrating that parents of autistic children are no different from parents of healthy children in their personalities or parenting behaviors. In fact, many families with an autistic child also have one or more perfectly healthy children. Because autistic children can be extremely sensitive to...

Cen Tm I I I I 1OITI 15qter

The molecular mechanism of three patients with de novo dup(15) was studied and was particularly supportive of the mechanisms of deletions in the PWS AS region. The patients, two males and one female (ages 3-21 years), had autistic behavior, hypotonia, and variable degrees of mental retardation. The extent, orientation, and parental origin of the duplications were assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, microsatellite analyses, and methylation status at D15S63. Two patients had large direct duplications of 15q11-q13 dir dup(15)(q11-q13) that extended through the entire AS PWS chromosomal region. Their proximal and distal breaks were comparable to those found in the common AS PWS deletions (Repetto et al., 1998). This suggests that duplications and deletions may be the reciprocal product of an unequal recombination event. These two duplications were maternally derived in one patient, the duplication originated from two different maternal chromosomes, while in the other patient,...

Sound Basis For Progress

This book is arranged in several sections corresponding to major domains of research and practice interest. Definition, classification, and etiology are discussed in Part I, with chapters on epidemiology, autism, cerebral palsy, genetic syndromes, epilepsy, brain injury, and the social aspects of developmental disabilities and associated disorders. The various organizing strategies typical of service delivery systems for people with

The MHC and disease general considerations

Tiwari and Terasaki's book published in 1985 (Tiwari and Terasaki, 1985), listed hundreds of HLA-associated diseases, even though the first demonstration of a strong association, that of HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), came only a decade earlier. Meanwhile, many more associations have been added to the list but, apart from Narcolepsy, which shows an almost absolute association with DQB1*0602, none have been as strong as the association of HLA-B27 with AS (Lechler and Warrens, 2000). There are conflicting reports for many of the weaker associations, which include everything from aging and dyslexia to autism and sleepwalking (Lecendreux et al., 2003). In some of these studies insufficient numbers of cases and controls were examined to obtain


The EEG is an important aid in the diagnosis and management of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, as well as in the diagnosis of brain damage related to trauma and diseases such as strokes, tumors, encephalitis, and drug and alcohol intoxication. The EEG is also useful in monitoring brain wave activity and in the determination of brain death. Research is active in determining the role of EEG in the diagnosis and management of mental retardation, sleep disorders, degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and in certain mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

Specific language impairment SLI

SLI is estimated to affect 2-7 of pre-primary school children and is diagnosed if significant language deficits are present despite adequate educational opportunity and normal nonverbal intelligence (Law etal., 1998). Alternative diagnoses of medical and developmental disorders such as deafness and autism must be excluded before a diagnosis of SLI is given. Features such as the orofacial dyspraxia found in the KE family would exclude a diagnosis of SLI. A continuum of language impairment exists, depending on the level of articulation and verbal expression, the ability to produce speech sounds, and verbal comprehension of others. SLI has been classified into subtypes, but it is possible that the variability seen in the phenotype reflects severity of impairment and the developmental stage of the child rather than an expression of specific deficits. Early evidence from a longitudinal study of language-impaired twins found that the majority (65.9 ) of individuals diagnosed with early...

Consent to Treatment

Equally, there are probably also many occasions on which people with disabilities or mental disorders appear to consent to treatment (or at least do not actively refuse it) without having understood fully what is involved. Consent is assumed to be valid simply because the decision seems sensible to a medical practitioner or another powerful professional. This outcome approach to capacity is also inappropriate and, in a recent English case (R v. Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust, ex parte L 1998 3 All ER 289), the Court of Appeal ruled that an NHS trust acted illegally in detaining a man with autism, because he lacked the capacity to give or withhold consent (Eastman and Peay, 1998). The House of Lords overruled the Appeal Court but its decision has been heavily criticised as being based more on the likely financial and resource issues than ethical treatment, particularly in relation to the probable costs in relation to people with dementia (Shah et al., 1999 Mukherjee...

Executive function

Executive function deficits are associated with a number of psychiatric and developmental disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism. Executive function deficits also appear to play a role in antisocial behavior. Chronic heavy users of drugs and alcohol show impairments on tests of executive function. Some of these deficits appear to result from heavy substance use, but there is also evidence suggesting that problems with executive functions may contribute to the development of substance use disorders. Autism A developmental disability that appears f See also Autism Dementia Schizophrenia Tic disorders

Non Coding RNAs

Recently, by studying the a-globin gene, Tufarelli et al. (65) described a novel mechanism of position effect-related gene regulation, antisense-mediated cis-acting methylation utilizing non-coding RNA (ncRNA), that is similar to the XIST TSIX-mediated X chromosome inactivation (66). It has been estimated that at least 20 of human genes have antisense transcripts (67,68). Several non-coding transcripts have been found associated with human diseases including B-cell lymphoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, cartilage-hair hypoplasia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 8, DiGeorge syndrome, autism, and schizophrenia (69). ncRNAs-based gene regulation may be an important mechanism of cell function particularly in more complex organisms however, the molecular mechanisms still await elucidation.


The identification of FOXP2 is a significant step forward towards understanding the neural mechanisms underlying speech and language, but does not appear to have a wider role in the genetic aetiology of SLI or autism. It is likely that the R553H mutation is unique to the KE family and any other missense mutations represent single mutational events. Techniques available from Mendelian disease genetics were used to identify FOXP2, but these are less applicable to multigenic disorders. The potential complexity of many genes interacting in SLI and autism requires the collection of large well characterised samples and the implementation of sophisticated statistical analysis. Because the genetic mode of transmission for SLI and autism is unknown, and may vary between families, model based analysis is both less powerful than for Mendelian diseases and repeated analyses with different models can also lead to multiple testing issues. A non-parametric qualitative approach is more appropriate...

Sensory Therapies

Mudford et al. (2000) reported a double blind, crossover trial of AIT in 16 children with autism. Measures included parent and teacher ratings of behaviour, direct observational recordings, IQ, language and social adaptive tests. The control condition was superior to AIT on parent behavioural measures. No significant differences were found on teacher measures. Parents could not detect when their children started on the AIT. There is no evidence that AIT reduces challenging behaviour and there are no reports of AIT causing harm to participants. However, the first author recalls that, during his training in the early 1970s, an outside expert attended a ward to review a multiply handicapped blind deaf young woman. During the course of the review he played excessively loud music through headphones in order to ascertain her sensitivity to sound and vibration. The woman became extremely excited by this procedure, which pleased the assessor because he had found some responsiveness and...

Bruce F Pennington

Fragile X syndrome, PKU, William's syndrome, and other neurogenetic disorders. Examples of the second strategy are genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, dyslexia, developmental speech and language disorders, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, and other psychiatric disorders. Because the details of most of the discoveries using each strategy are described elsewhere, we will not review specific discoveries except in an illustrative way. Instead, this chapter focuses on methods and the general implications of what has already been discovered for developmental cognitive neuroscience. It is now well established that many psychiatric disorders are familial. For instance, the value of X is 9 for schizophrenia, 8 for bipolar disorder, and 3 for major depression (Plomin et al., 1997). Similar values have been found for childhood psychiatric disorders X values are 6 for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Faraone et al., 1992), 8 for dyslexia...


Autism is believed to be associated with abnormalities of cerebellar and brain-stem function. Twin studies suggest a genetic predisposition. Prevalence is 20 per 100 000 children, and it is more common in boys. Learning disability, often due to a specific cause such as rubella, is present in 70 per cent of cases, whereas parental intelligence is in the normal range. Neurological impairments are found in 25 per cent, and 30 per cent develop epilepsy during adolescence. Autism seldom recovers and affected children often have substantial care needs, although their life expectancy is normal. The lower the IQ, the worse is the prognosis. Special education, behavioural methods, and psychotropic drug treatment may produce some improvement. Kanner's syndrome is autism with a normal IQ. Asperger's syndrome, or schizoid personality of childhood, may be a mild form of autism and comprises eccentric isolated behaviour with circumscribed interests and stilted speech 'autistic traits'. The phrase...

Inv Dup15

The smallest inv dup(15)s contain no duplicated material from the PWS AS deletion region between BP2 and BP3 and carry a low risk of adverse outcome, despite the presence of at least four protein coding genes in the region centromeric to BP2 (32,33) (Fig. 2). The largest interstitial and supernumerary duplications contain extra copies of the chromosomal material extending distally to the PWS AS BP3 region, and are associated with dysmorphic features, severe developmental delay, autism, seizures, strabismus, and abnormal dermatoglyphics (28). inv dup(15)s, because of their derivation from an imprinted region, can present an unusual situation in terms of gene activity. A PWS or AS phenotype has been found in individuals who, in addition to the inv dup(15), carry either a deletion or uniparental disomy for chromosome 15, leading to the parent of origin phenotypes associated with loss of one parental copy of imprinted genes (17,18).

Cognitive Ability

Mapped on chromosome 1, with a possible intervention of genes located on chromosome 17. They have a rough estimate of the number of genes involved and the rough location of a few of these genes on chromosomes. Because the human genome is huge and we can not do experimental crosses of humans, it may be years before the genes for autism are identified. However, the completion of the Human Genome Project will help to identify this and other genes involved in polygenic traits in humans.

Fragile X Syndrome

FXS is the leading heritable form of mental retardation (Hagerman and Hagerman 2002a), with a prevalence for cognitive impairment of approximately 1 4000 men and 1 6000 women (Turner et al. 1992 Sherman 2002). FXS is almost always due to expansion of a trinucleotide d(CGG) repeat in the 5'-UTR of the FMR1 gene (Verkerk et al. 1991 Pieretti et al. 1991 Oberle et al. 1991 Yu et al. 1991 Fu et al. 1991). FMR1 alleles with more than 200 d(CGG) repeats generally become hypermethylated in the promoter region, with consequent transcriptional silencing and loss of the FMRP (Pieretti et al. 1991). Although FXS is typically described as a mental retardation syndrome (with mild physical features generally thought to reflect connective elastic tissue laxity Hagerman 2002), it is actually a spectrum disorder, with associated disorders of mood, behavior, and socialization. Patients with the most severe clinical involvement tend to be autistic and nonverbal (Hagerman 2002). However, not all...

Technical terms

Alarcon, M., Cantor, R.M., Liu, J., Gilliam, T. C. and Geschwind, D.H. (2002). Evidence for a language quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7q in multiplex autism families. Am J Hum Genet, 70, 60-71. Alarcon, M., Yonan, A. L., Gilliam, T. C., Cantor, R. M. and Geschwind, D.H. (2005). Quantitative genome scan and ordered-subsets analysis of autism endophenotypes support language QTLs. Mol Psychiatry, 10, 747-57. Andres, C. (2002). Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder. Brain Res Bull, 57, 109-19. Auranen, M., Vanhala, R., Varilo, T. et al. (2002). A genomewide screen for autism-spectrum disorders evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 3q2527. Am J Hum Genet, 71, 777-90. Aylward, E.H., Minshew, N.J., Field, K., Sparks, B.F. and Singh, N. (2002). Effects of age on brain volume and head circumference in autism. Neurology, 59, 175-83. Bacchelli, E., Blasi, F., Biondolillo, M. et al. (2003). Screening of nine candidate genes for autism on chromosome 2q...

Pten Mutations In Cs

Abbreviations ASD, autism spectrum disorder BRRS, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome CS, Cowden syndrome PHTS, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes PS, Proteus syndrome PSL, Proteus syndrome like SD, standard deviation VATER, vertebral malformations, anal malformations, trachea-esophageal atresia, radial renal malformations. Abbreviations ASD, autism spectrum disorder BRRS, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome CS, Cowden syndrome PHTS, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes PS, Proteus syndrome PSL, Proteus syndrome like SD, standard deviation VATER, vertebral malformations, anal malformations, trachea-esophageal atresia, radial renal malformations.

Consensus Panels

The New York Department of Health (1999a, 1999b, 1999c) conducted an expert panel review of the effectiveness of intervention for pre-school children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. The guidelines were based on a systematic review of the scientific literature, involved operationalised criteria for including and excluding studies in the review and involved a panel of expert readers to identify and review the papers. A wide range of behavioural and non-behavioural interventions was identified. The review provided a rating of the status of their conclusions for example some were identified as panel consensus and others were identified as evidence based. They gave their conclusions in unequivocal terms by stating that certain therapies were recommended or not recommended. The panel concluded that early behavioural intervention for children was strongly recommended and should include at least 20 hours per week. Applied behaviour analysis was also identified as an...

Behaviour Therapies

Campbell (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of behavioural interventions of behavioural interventions for persons with autism using single subject designs. He identified 117 articles involving 181 individuals from 15 journals. Campbell again found strong evidence that behavioural interventions could reduce maladaptive behaviours in people with autism. Horner et al. (2002) review the existing literature on problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism. Reviewing peer reviewed research from 1996 to 2000, they used the following criteria for studies subjects with autism less than 97 months old problem behaviour as a dependent variable an experimental design that allowed identification of a causal relationship between reduction and problem behaviour and intervention data for individual subjects and at least three data points for pre-intervention and three data points for post-intervention phases. Nine articles were identified fulfilling these criteria with a total of 24...


The fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, responsible for fragile X syndrome (FXS), is a paradigm for trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders. A particularly intriguing and important aspect of the FMR1 gene is that it gives rise to diverse clinical syndromes, affecting different groups of people, depending on the size of the d(CGG) repeat expansion in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the gene. On the basis of the repeat expansion, individuals are classified as having normal alleles 5-44 d(CGG) repeats , intermediate or gray zone alleles 45-54 d(CGG) repeats , premutation alleles 55-200 d(CGG) repeats , or full-mutation alleles more than 200 d(CGG) repeats . Whereas full-mutation expansions generally result in FXS, and often in autism, smaller repeat expansions in the premutation range give rise to at least three separate forms of clinical involvement (1) behavioral, physical, emotional, and cognitive problems in some children who are premutation carriers (2) premature...

Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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