Mixing Essential Oils

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. Continue reading...

Learn How To Use Essential Oils Summary


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Eucalyptus, as It Is traditionally used in aromatherapy, has not been systematically investigated under clinical trial conditions. Therefore, most evidence is derived from traditional sources. Aromatherapists use eucalyptus for its mentally uplifting and stimulating effects and to aid concentration. It is also used in massage and vapourisers to relieve respiratory symptoms, treat minor skin infections and acne, and relieve headache and muscular aches and pain. Usually eucalyptus oil is included in a blend of 3-5 essential oils for a massage but may be used alone for an inhalation.

Lunar Farms Herbal Specialists

Kawai Pra Colorir

Officinalis) 1 part chamomile flowers H part ginger root (Zingiber officinale) Rose and lavender essential oils 1 part mugwort leaves and flowers (Artemisia spp.) 11. To use, pour a cup of the oil into a small container. Scent with essential oils, if desired. Twenty-five drops of essential oils is enough for a 2-ounce bottle. After you add and mix your essential oils, let the bottle sit for an hour or longer then smell and adjust the fragrance blend to suit your taste. Try the following essential oils to make special massage blends. Congestion blend eucalyptus, lemon, tea tree

Some Herbal Terms

It takes sophisticated equipment to make essential oils, which are highly concentrated, pure plant distillates extracted from various parts of plants. Also, a huge volume of plant material is required to make even a small amount of pure oil, so it's nearly impossible to make essential oils at home. However, you can buy herbal oils at herb shops and pharmacies. When shopping for essential oils, look for pure essential oils packaged in dark-colored bottles. Synthetic oils, although far less expensive, cannot be safely or effectively used in therapeutic recipes. Due to variations in the oil content of various plants, you'll find a wide range in the cost of essential oils. Pure rose oil, for example, costs 45 for 14 ounce, whereas the same amount of lavender oil costs 5. Essential oils are almost always intended for external use. In addition, most essential oils are too strong to use directly on the skin,- they must first be mixed into an oil or cream. Store essential oils...

Strategy Of Making Antiirritant Cosmetics

The use of or do not contain these ingredients. Actually, a modern trend in cosmetics is to develop specific cosmetics without preservatives. This challenge can be partially answered in cosmetic preparations with none or low water content oils, fats, water oil emulsions, and lipogels using some synthetic lipids and or essential oils with bactericidal properties as preservatives. With aqueous solutions, hydrogels, and oil water emulsions, this goal is very difficult to achieve and presently not realized consequently, these types of cosmetics still contain preservatives.

Chemical Components

The most important constituents in regard to pharmacological activity are the polysaccharides, caffeic acid derivatives, alkylamides, essential oils and polyacetylenes, although there are other potentially active constituents, as well as a range of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, resins, glycoproteins and sterols (Pizzorno & Murray 2006). Constituent concentrations vary depending on the species, plant part and growing conditions. In regards to the final chemical composition of an Echlnacea-containing product, the drying and extraction processes further alter chemical composition.

Spices as Antimicrobials

The essential oils of some spices have an inhibitory effect on bacteria and fungi in meats, sausages, pickles, breads, and juices. Eugenol in clove cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon allyl isothiocyanates in mustard thymol in thyme, carvacrol in oregano linalool in coriander, and allicin in garlic, are some of the components used as antimicrobials. Spices must be used at high levels to be effective antimicrobials, but this will cause flavor issues in food products. The level of spices typically added to Western style foods is generally not enough to inhibit microorganisms completely but may inhibit spoilage to some extent. Spice extractives at the levels used are effective against certain bacteria. Thyme (thymol), anise (anetol), and cinnamon (eugenol) essential oils inhibit mold growth and aflatoxin production.

Improved Concentration

In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted In significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest In a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and Increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce Increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate mathematical computations (Field et al 2005). In a RCT, lavender aromatherapy tended to enhance calculating speed and calculating accuracy In female but not male subjects (Liu et al 2004), but results from another study suggest 2007 Elsevier Australia A controlled study of dementia patients found that a blend of lavender, sweet marjoram, patchouli and vetiver essential oils in a cream massaged 5 times day for 4 weeks onto the bodies and limbs of 56 aged care facility residents with moderate to...

Antimicrobial And Antiparasitic

Gingerols demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli in vitro (Yamada et al 1992), and the essential oils of ginger have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi in vitro (Martins et al 2001). Shogaol and gingerol have demonstrated anti-nematode activities 6.25 fjg mL 6-shogaol destroyed Anisakis larvae within 16 hours in vitro, whereas the antinematodal medication pyrantel pamoate had no lethal effect at 1 mg mL (Goto et al 1990). Ginger constituents have also been shown to be antifungal and antiviral. Shogaol and zingerone strongly inhibited Salmonella typhi, Vibrio choleraeand Tricophyton violaceum. Aqueous extracts have also been shown to be effective against Trichomonas vaginalis (Henry & Piggott 1987). Several sesquiterpenes, but especially beta-sesquiphellandrene, isolated from ginger have also been shown to have antirhinoviral activity in vitro (Denyer et...

Nonpharmacological Treatments Focus on Unmet Needs

If an individual is expressing a less tangible need than hunger or thirst, determining the cause of the behavior problem becomes even more challenging. Fortunately, some interventions do exist to address some of the free-floating needs experienced by persons with dementia. The rise in popularity in the general population of holistic approaches to wellness and well-being can be adapted for demented elderly populations. One group intervention that combined breathing exercises, music, aromatherapy, the use of textured materials, and physical movement achieved significant reductions in agitation in nursing home residents (Lantz, Buchalter, & McBee, 1997). This intervention led to increased feelings of efficacy among staff members. Many individuals with dementia may suffer from a lack of physical contact, which may relate to their dysfunctional behavior. The use of brief (five-minute) gentle hand massage, combined with verbalization, has been found to decrease agitation, anxiety, and...

Description And Definition Of Main Vehicles Solutions

In general, true solutions used in cosmetics are either based on aqueous, or aqueous-alcoholic, media or on inert oily vehicles. Most organic solvents cannot be used because of their local or systemic toxicity, which causes skin irritation or permeation across the skin barrier into the body, respectively. Although good solvents for lipophilic substances, oils may not be used in every case because of their grassy characteristic, low acceptance, and exclusion for hairy application sites. However, for special applications oils are preferred, e.g., for massage. ''Massage oils'' contain essential oils and fragrances, compounds that are easily dissolved in the oily vehicle because of their lipophilic properties. Another classical example is preparations for mouthwashes. They usually contain essential oils or liquid plant extracts like peppermint or myrrh extract, which are kept in solution by the added ethanol (ca. 70 ). When used for application, these concentrates are diluted with water....

Hot and Pungent Nonvolatiles in Some Spices

Oleoresins come as viscous oils and thick pastes and are more difficult to handle than essential oils. Usually, oleoresins are mixed with a diluent such as propylene glycol, glycerol, or other oils for better handling. An emulsifier is added to make it water soluble, or gum is added to make it into an emulsion for use in beverages, sauces, soups, pickles, and salad dressings. Oleoresins are used at very low concentrations because they are highly concentrated. They have greater heat stability than essential oils. Oleoresins give more uniform flavor and color with less variability than their ground spice counterparts. They are typically used in high heat applications such as soups, salad dressings, processed meats, and in dry mixes and spice blends. Liquid soluble spices are blends of essential oils or oleoresins that are made for aqueous systems. Fat-based soluble spice is made from essential oil or oleoresin blended with vegetable oil and used for mayonnaise, sauce, or soup. Dry...

Manufacturers Of Herbal Medicines And Natural Supplements In Australia And New Zealand

Frinciples of Clinical FharmacoLogy. California Academic Fress, 2001. Battaglia S. The Complete Cuide to Aromatherapy. Brisbane The Ferfect Fotion, 1995. Price S, Price L. Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 2nd edn. London Churchill Livingstone, 2002. Rang HP et al. Pharmacology, 4th edn. Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone, 2001. Shils M (ed). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edn. Baltimore Williams and Wilkins, 2000. Skidmore-Roth L. Mosby's Handbook of Herbs and Natural Supplements. St Louis Mosby, 2001. Thomsen M. Phytotherapy Desk Reference, 2nd edn. Institute for Phytotherapy, 2001. Ulbricht CE et al. Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St Louis Mosby, 2005. Wahlqvist ML (ed). Food and Nutrition, 2nd edn. Sydney Allen & Unwin, 2002. Waller DG et al. Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. London WB Saunders, 2001. Williamson EM. Dabur Research Foundation and Dabur Ayurvet Ltd. Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone, 2002.

Examples of Characterizing Essential Oil Components in some Popular spices

Spice Components in Essential Oils Essential oils are soluble in alcohol or ether and are only slightly soluble in water. They provide more potent aromatic effects than the ground spices. Essential oils lose their aroma with age. Essential oils are very concentrated, about seventy-five to one hundred times more concentrated than the fresh spice. They do not have the complete flavor profile of ground spices, but they are used where a strong aromatic effect is desired. Essential oils are used at a very low level of 0.01 to 0.05 in the finished product. They can be irritating to the skin, toxic to the nervous system if taken internally (by themselves), and can cause allergic reactions and even miscarriages. Sometimes, alternative oils extracted from a different part of the same spice plant or from another variety are used to enhance or adulterate the more expensive essential oils, but suppliers need to meet the quality specifications that are required from manufacturers for these...

Maintaining Spice Quality

Light will fade the color and character of spices, and heat volatilizes and dissipates the essential oils in ground spices, and moisture or high humidity tends to cake ground spices. High levels of moisture in ground or whole spices are potential for mold and microbial growth. Exposure to light, humidity variations, air, and certain metals can discolor many spices such as paprika, turmeric, or the green leafy spices. Dry, ground chile peppers turn from a natural green or red color to an olive or dirty reddish brown color when exposed to light. Flavor and aroma losses as well as insect and rodent infestation occur when spices are not stored in airtight containers.

Spice Forms And Composition

Whole spices provide aroma and, most importantly, texture and visual effect. Certain spices have a strong aroma when fresh, such as basil, kari leaf, ginger, or mint, due to their highly volatile (essential) oils. The essential oils disappear quickly at high temperatures, especially if the spices are processed in an aqueous system, but they can also be lost at room temperatures or when the spices are cut or bruised. Spice extractives, which are highly concentrated forms of spices, contain the volatile and nonvolatile oils that give each spice its characteristic flavor. The volatile portions of spice extractives, also referred to as essential oils, typify the particular Volatile oils contain several chemical components whose amount and proportion give rise to the spices' characteristic aromas. These can include one, two, or several components. The major chemical components of essential oils are terpene compounds and depending on its molecular size, monoterpenes, diterpenes,...

Typical Sensory Characteristics of Spices

The coloring components of essential oils are generally extracted with ethanol or organic solvents, and the solvents are removed to give the coloring matter. Extracts of paprika, saffron, annatto, and turmeric with emulsifiers (polysorbate 80) are used as natural colors to provide the bright yellow, red, and orange hues in processed foods and beverages. They are available as oil-soluble (oleoresins) and water-dis-persible extracts. Trace metals, oxidized fats and oils, intense light, and exposure to oxygen will promote color losses in these extractives.

Contraindications And Precautions

Do not apply essential oils to eyes or undiluted to mucous membranes. Orange essential oil is flammable and should not be vapourised near sources of heat or open flames. Therefore, candle vapourisers are not recommended. Skin sensitisation and phototoxicity are possible with the essential oils, so exposure to UV light sources should be avoided for at least 12 hours after dermal application. The risk is increased in fair-skinned individuals and when a blend that also contains other phototoxic essential oils is used.


There are no risks involved in external aromatherapy when essential oils are diluted as recommended. Not all essential oils, however, should be taken internally. Benzoin and other essential oils derived from tree resins should not be used internally. A few cases have been reported of dissociative episodes triggered by fragrances associated with traumatic experiences. Patients in treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or any of the dissociative disorders should consult their therapist before they use aromatherapy.

Abnormal results

Abnormal results include skin irritations or other allergic reactions to essential oils, and the development of traumatic memories associated with specific smells. New York Simon and Schuster, 2002. Price, Shirley. Practical Aromatherapy. Second edition, revised. London, UK Thorsons, 1994. Buckle, J. The Role of Aromatherapy in Nursing Care. Nursing Clinics of North America 36 (March 2001) 57-72. Ilmberger, I., E. Heuberger, C. Mahrhofer, and others. The Influence of Essential Oils on Human Attention Simpson, N., and K. Roman. Complementary Medicine Use in Children Extent and Reasons. British Journal of General Practice 51 (November 2001) 914-916. Smallwood, J., R. Brown, F. Coulter, and others. Aromatherapy and Behaviour Disturbances in Dementia A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16 (October 2001) 1010-1013. American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. 601 Valley Street, Suite 105, Seattle, WA 98109. (206) 298-0126. <...

Citrus aurantium

Historical note The root word for orange is the Arabic, narandj (Sellar 1992). The orange is a symbol of innocence and fertility. Some scholars believe the 'golden apple' Paris presented to Venus was actually an orange. In return, Venus bestowed Helen on Paris as a reward for selecting her in a beauty contest, which eventually caused the Trojan War. The tree is indigenous to eastern Africa, Arabia and Syria and it is believed that the crusaders may have introduced the orange to Europe when they returned from the crusades. Unripe dried fruits and the fruit peel are incorporated into various products, including foods such as marmalade, alcoholic beverages such as Curacao and medicinal products. The essential oil is used in perfumes, cosmetics and aromatherapy (Leung & Foster 1 996), and also used as food flavouring and to disguise the unpleasant taste of medicines. Orange blossom water has been used for centuries in Mediterranean countries to flavour cakes and beverages (Jeannot et...


Historical note Indigenous Australians traditionally used eucalyptus to treat fevers and respiratory infections, accounting for its name 'fevertree'. European settlers also recognised the medicinal qualities of eucalyptus and surgeon Considen is credited with producing the first essential oil sample in 1 788. Bosisto investigated oils from several Australian plants and in 1 854 eventually produced essential oils commercially in association with Mueller, a pharmacist. Bosisto and Mueller concentrated on oils rich in 1,8-cineole, which includes Eucalyptus species. In the late 1 800s, articles about its medicinal use appeared in medical journals such as The Lancet, focusing on its potential in scarlet fever and diphtheria.

West Indian Bay Leaf

Scientific Name(s) Pimienta racemosa. Family Myrtaceae. Origin and Varieties it is cultivated in the Caribbean islands Form the leaves are large and long and available fresh or dried whole, or ground. Properties It has a harsh, penetrating, clovelike flavor. Chemical Components it has an essential oil of 1 to 2 , mainly phenols (50 to 60 ). The essential oils are eugenol (38 to 75 ), myrcene (14 to 32 ), chavicol (11 to 21 ), linalool (92 to 93 ), limonene (1.5 ), 1,8-cineole (0.2 to 2.0 ) and 3-octanone (1 ).


A RCT of scalp massage using thyme, rosemary, lavender and cedarwood essential oils in 86 patients with alopecia areata found a significant improvement in hair growth after 7 months (Hay et al 1998). Although the efficacy of lavender as a stand-alone treatment was not clarified with this trial, it is known that the herb has some antibacterial and antifungal activity that may play a role. In a single case study, topical application of lavender, together with other essential oils, was reported to assist in treating scalp eczema (De Valois 2004).

Kari Or Curry Leaf

Chemical Components the essential oils vary based on different varieties. The fresh leaf has about 0.5 to 2.5 essential oil, mostly monoterpenes. There is a gradual decrease in volatile content with advancing maturity so fresh leaves have more volatiles than the older leaves. The essential oils mainly consist of sabinene (9 to 34 ), a-pinene (5 to 27 ) and dipentene (6 to 16 ) with P-caryophyl-lene (8 to 20 ), P-gurjunene, P-elemene, P-phellandrene, limonene, P thujene, and bisbolene.

Plant Parts Used

Steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferin A), alkaloids (including withanine, somniferine, isopelietierine, anaferine, tropine, pseudotropine), flavonoids, saponins, sitoindosides, iron, choline, acylsteryl glucosides, coumarins (scopoletin and aesculetin), triterpene (beta-amyrin), phytosterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol), essential oils (ipuranol, withaniol) (Abou-Dooh 2002 Kulkarni & Verma 1993 Mills & Bone 2000).

Margaret B Artz

Vitex agnus-castus is an herb that has been used for hundreds of years in Europe for female reproductive system disorders, is well-tolerated, and has established efficacy in helping with some symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome. The major active constituents of V. agnus-castus are iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential oils. Its dominant pharmacological effect on the body is inhibition of prolactin secretion. V. agnus-castus is available in a variety of dosage forms and its use is gaining popularity in the United States. Although it has a low adverse-effect profile, women should avoid ingesting the herb while trying to become pregnant, during pregnancy, or while nursing.


Chemical Components the essential oils (terpenes, alcohols, and aldehydes) in lemongrass vary with the variety, from 0.2 to 0.5 . C. citratus has 0.3 to 0.4 essential oil with 70 citral, others being citronellol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, geranial, and neral. C. flexuosus has 0.2 to 0.5 essential oil with 80 to 85 citral. The other components are nerol, limonene, P-caryophyllene, myrcene (14 ), geranyl acetate (3 ), methyl heptenone (2 ), and linalool (1 ).

Aromatheray For Cynics

Aromatheray For Cynics

This eBook explains how Aromatherapy has something to do with scents and smells treating illnesses and conditions. Many people who do not like the sometimes-unpleasant side effects of prescribed medication, particularly for depression, stress, or other similar disorders, have opted to use aromatherapy to help reach the desired state of being.

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