The use of robotics is a recent innovation in surgery, and it has led to enhanced dexterity and motion scaling. Remote, accurate telema-nipulation of intracavitary instruments by general surgeons, is now possible. Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation is also feasible.30

In laparoscopic surgery, two types of assisting technical systems are in use. First, there are devices to hold single instruments that

Fig. 3 The application of local haemostyptica during laparoscopic surgery is depicted.

can be controlled by the surgeon. Second, there are computerassisted master-slave-systems. Among these, the most frequently used are the ZEUS surgical robotic system and the da VINCI surgical

31,32 system.3^32

Most of them are expensive and, therefore, rather uncommon. The principles and the techniques of haemostasis are the same as in laparoscopic surgery.

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