The use of robotics is a recent innovation in surgery, and it has led to enhanced dexterity and motion scaling. Remote, accurate telema-nipulation of intracavitary instruments by general surgeons, is now possible. Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation is also feasible.30
In laparoscopic surgery, two types of assisting technical systems are in use. First, there are devices to hold single instruments that
Fig. 3 The application of local haemostyptica during laparoscopic surgery is depicted.
can be controlled by the surgeon. Second, there are computerassisted master-slave-systems. Among these, the most frequently used are the ZEUS surgical robotic system and the da VINCI surgical
Most of them are expensive and, therefore, rather uncommon. The principles and the techniques of haemostasis are the same as in laparoscopic surgery.
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