Intrarenal arteriovenous fistulas and pseudoaneurysms are the result of vascular trauma during percutaneous biopsy. Arteriovenous fistulas may form when an artery and vein are lacerated; pseudoaneurysms result when only the artery is lacerated. These can occur after renal biopsies that could be traumatic. The majority of these lesions are small and clinically insignificant. They usually resolve spontaneously, therefore, the frequency of this complication is unknown. When lesions are sizable, marked arteriovenous shunting may result in renal ischaemia. Haematuria or perigraft haemorrhage may result when large arteriovenous fistulas or pseudoaneurysms rupture. When symptomatic or large, intrarenal arteriovenous fistulas and pseudoa-neurysms may be effectively treated with embolisation.
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