Water Molecules Form Hydrogen Bonds

An unshielded hydrogen nucleus covalently bound to an electron-withdrawing oxygen or nitrogen atom can interact with an unshared electron pair on another oxygen or nitrogen atom to form a hydrogen bond. Since water molecules contain both of these features, hydrogen bonding favors the self-association of water molecules into ordered arrays (Figure 2-2). Hydrogen bonding profoundly influences the physical properties of water and accounts for its exceptionally high viscosity, surface tension, and boiling point. On average, each molecule in liquid water associates through hydrogen bonds with 3.5 others. These bonds are both relatively weak and transient, with a half-life of about one microsecond. Rupture of a hydrogen bond in liquid water requires only about 4.5 kcal/mol, less than 5% of the energy required to rupture a covalent O —H bond.

Hydrogen bonding enables water to dissolve many organic biomolecules that contain functional groups which can participate in hydrogen bonding. The oxygen atoms of aldehydes, ketones, and amides provide pairs of electrons that can serve as hydrogen acceptors. Alcohols and amines can serve both as hydrogen acceptors and as donors of unshielded hydrogen atoms for formation of hydrogen bonds (Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-1. The water molecule has tetrahedral geometry.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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