Transposition Can Produce Processed Genes

In eukaryotic cells, small DNA elements that clearly are not viruses are capable of transposing themselves in and

CW/A

Figure 36-11. The integration of a circular genome from a virus (with genes A, B, and C) into the DNA molecule of a host (with genes 1 and 2) and the consequent ordering of the genes.

out of the host genome in ways that affect the function of neighboring DNA sequences. These mobile elements, sometimes called "jumping DNA," can carry flanking regions of DNA and, therefore, profoundly affect evolution. As mentioned above, the Alu family of moderately repeated DNA sequences has structural characteristics similar to the termini of retroviruses, which would account for the ability of the latter to move into and out of the mammalian genome.

Direct evidence for the transposition of other small DNA elements into the human genome has been provided by the discovery of "processed genes" for immunoglobulin molecules, a-globin molecules, and several others. These processed genes consist of DNA sequences identical or nearly identical to those of the messenger RNA for the appropriate gene product. That is, the 5' nontranscribed region, the coding region without intron representation, and the 3' poly(A) tail are all present contiguously. This particular DNA sequence arrangement must have resulted from the reverse transcription of an appropriately processed messenger RNA molecule from which the intron regions had been removed and the poly(A) tail added. The only recognized mechanism this reverse transcript could have used to integrate into the genome would have been a transposition event. In fact, these "processed genes" have short terminal repeats at each end, as do known transposed sequences in lower organisms. In the absence of their transcription and thus genetic selection for function, many of the processed genes have been randomly altered through evolution so that they now contain nonsense codons which preclude their ability to encode a functional, intact protein (see Chapter 38). Thus, they are referred to as "pseudogenes."

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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