• All vertebrates can form certain amino acids from amphibolic intermediates or from other dietary amino acids. The intermediates and the amino acids to which they give rise are a-ketoglutarate (Glu, Gln, Pro, Hyp), oxaloacetate (Asp, Asn) and 3-phospho-glycerate (Ser, Gly).

• Cysteine, tyrosine, and hydroxylysine are formed from nutritionally essential amino acids. Serine provides the carbon skeleton and homocysteine the sulfur for cysteine biosynthesis. Phenylalanine hydroxy-lase converts phenylalanine to tyrosine.

• Neither dietary hydroxyproline nor hydroxylysine is incorporated into proteins because no codon or tRNA dictates their insertion into peptides.

• Peptidyl hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine are formed by hydroxylation of peptidyl proline or lysine in reactions catalyzed by mixed-function oxidases that require vitamin C as cofactor. The nutritional disease scurvy reflects impaired hydroxylation due to a deficiency of vitamin C.

• Selenocysteine, an essential active site residue in several mammalian enzymes, arises by co-translational insertion of a previously modified tRNA.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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