R

Xylulose 5-phosphate

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate

TRANSALDOLASE

Fructose 6-phosphate

Erythrose 4-phosphate

PHOSPHOHEXOSE ISOMERASE

TRANSKETOLASE

Fructose 6-phosphate C6

PHOSPHOHEXOSE ISOMERASE

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate C3

PHOSPHOTRIOSE ISOMERASE

1/2 Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE

ALDOLASE

1/2 Fructose 6-phosphate C6

PHOSPHOHEXOSE ISOMERASE

Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose 6-phosphate 1/2 Glucose 6-phosphate

C6 C6 C6

Figure 20-1. Flow chart of pentose phosphate pathway and its connections with the pathway of glycolysis. The full pathway, as indicated, consists of three interconnected cycles in which glucose 6-phosphate is both substrate and end product. The reactions above the broken line are nonreversible, whereas all reactions under that line are freely reversible apart from that catalyzed by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE

GLUCONOLACTONE HYDROLASE

CH2-O-® 6-Phosphogluconolactone

COO I

CH2-O-(P) 6-Phosphogluconate

NADP+

6-PHOSPHOGLUCONATE DEHYDROGENASE

CHOH II

C OH

CH2-O-(P Enediol form

RIBOSE 5-PHOSPHATE KETOISOMERASE

Ribose 5-phosphate -

PRPP SYNTHETASE

PRPP

CH2-O-® Xylulose 5-phosphate

CH2OH

CH2-O-® Ribulose 5-phosphate

COO I

CO I

3-Keto 6-phosphogluconate

RIBULOSE 5-PHOSPHATE 3-EPIMERASE

RIBULOSE 5-PHOSPHATE 3-EPIMERASE

TRANSKETOLASE

*CH2-O-® Xylulose 5-phosphate

CH2-O-® Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate

Mg2+

*CH2-O-(P) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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