Prions

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by spongiform changes, astrocytic gli-omas, and neuronal loss resulting from the deposition of insoluble protein aggregates in neural cells. They include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in a1'7= 0

F/gure 5-9. Isomerization of the N-a1 prolyl peptide bond from a cis to a trans configuration relative to the backbone of the polypeptide.

sheep, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) in cattle. Prion diseases may manifest themselves as infectious, genetic, or sporadic disorders. Because no viral or bacterial gene encoding the pathologic prion protein could be identified, the source and mechanism of transmission of prion disease long remained elusive. Today it is believed that prion diseases are protein conformation diseases transmitted by altering the conformation, and hence the physical properties, of proteins endogenous to the host. Human prion-related protein, PrP, a glycoprotein encoded on the short arm of chromosome 20, normally is monomeric and rich in a helix. Pathologic prion proteins serve as the templates for the conformational transformation of normal PrP, known as PrPc, into PrPsc. PrPsc is rich in P sheet with many hydrophobic aminoacyl side chains exposed to solvent. PrPsc molecules therefore associate strongly with one other, forming insoluble protease-re-sistant aggregates. Since one pathologic prion or prion-related protein can serve as template for the conforma-tional transformation of many times its number of PrPc molecules, prion diseases can be transmitted by the protein alone without involvement of DNA or RNA.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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