PKa Values Express the Strengths of Weak Acids

The acid strengths of weak acids are expressed as their pKa (Table 3-1). The imidazole group of histidine and the guanidino group of arginine exist as resonance hybrids with positive charge distributed between both nitrogens (histidine) or all three nitrogens (arginine) (Figure 3-2). The net charge on an amino acid—the algebraic sum of all the positively and negatively charged groups present—depends upon the pK values of its functional groups and on the pH of the surrounding medium. Altering the charge on amino acids and their derivatives by varying the pH facilitates the physical separation of amino acids, peptides, and proteins (see Chapter 4).

c=nh2

Figure 3-2. Resonance hybrids of the protonated forms of the R groups of histidine and arginine.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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