Laminin Is A Major Protein Component Of Renal Glomerular Other Basal Laminas

Basal laminas are specialized areas of the ECM that surround epithelial and some other cells (eg, muscle cells); here we discuss only the laminas found in the renal glomerulus. In that structure, the basal lamina is contributed by two separate sheets of cells (one endothelial and one epithelial), each disposed on opposite sides of the lamina; these three layers make up the glomerular membrane. The primary components of the basal lamina are three proteins—laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen—and the GAG heparin or heparan sulfate. These components are synthesized by the underlying cells.

Laminin (about 850 kDa, 70 nm long) consists of three distinct elongated polypeptide chains (A, B1, and B2) linked together to form an elongated cruciform shape. It has binding sites for type IV collagen, heparin, and integrins on cell surfaces. The collagen interacts with laminin (rather than directly with the cell surface), which in turn interacts with integrins or other laminin receptor proteins, thus anchoring the lamina to the cells. Entactin, also known as "nidogen," is a glycopro-tein containing an RGD sequence; it binds to laminin and is a major cell attachment factor. The relatively thick basal lamina of the renal glomerulus has an important role in glomerular filtration, regulating the passage of large molecules (most plasma proteins) across the glomerulus into the renal tubule. The glomerular membrane allows small molecules, such as inulin (5.2 kDa), to pass through as easily as water. On the other hand, only a small amount of the protein albumin (69

Heparin A Fibrin A

Collagen

Cell A

Heparin B

Cell B

Fibrin B

Figure 48-3. Schematic representation of fibronectin. Seven functional domains of fibronectin are represented; two different types of domain for heparin, cell-binding, and fibrin are shown. The domains are composed of various combinations of three structural motifs (I, II, and III), not depicted in the figure. Also not shown is the fact that fibronectin is a dimer joined by disulfide bridges near the carboxyl terminals of the monomers. The approximate location of the RGD sequence of fibronectin, which interacts with a variety of fibronectin integrin receptors on cell surfaces, is indicated by the arrow. (Redrawn after Yamada KM: Adhesive recognition sequences. J Biol Chem 1991;266:12809.)

kDa), the major plasma protein, passes through the normal glomerulus. This is explained by two sets of facts: (1) The pores in the glomerular membrane are large enough to allow molecules up to about 8 nm to pass through. (2) Albumin is smaller than this pore size, but it is prevented from passing through easily by the negative charges of heparan sulfate and of certain sialic acid-containing glycoproteins present in the lamina. These negative charges repel albumin and most plasma proteins, which are negatively charged at the pH of blood. The normal structure of the glomerulus may be severely damaged in certain types of glomerulonephritis (eg, caused by antibodies directed against various components of the glomerular membrane). This alters the pores and the amounts and dispositions of the negatively charged macromolecules referred to above, and relatively massive amounts of albumin (and of certain

Laminin

Figure 48-4. Schematic representation of a cell interacting through various integrin receptors with collagen, fibronectin, and laminin present in the ECM. (Specific subunits are not indicated.) (Redrawn after Yamada KM: Adhesive recognition sequences. J Biol Chem 1991;266:12809.)

Laminin

Figure 48-4. Schematic representation of a cell interacting through various integrin receptors with collagen, fibronectin, and laminin present in the ECM. (Specific subunits are not indicated.) (Redrawn after Yamada KM: Adhesive recognition sequences. J Biol Chem 1991;266:12809.)

Fibronectin

OUTSIDE

Plasma membrane

Talin Vinculin Capping protein a-Actin

Fibronectin

OUTSIDE

Plasma membrane

Talin Vinculin Capping protein a-Actin

INSIDE

INSIDE

Actin

Figure 48-5. Schematic representation of fibronectin interacting with an integrin fibronectin receptor situated in the exterior of the plasma membrane of a cell of the ECM and of various attachment proteins interacting indirectly or directly with an actin microfilament in the cytosol. For simplicity, the attachment proteins are represented as a complex.

other plasma proteins) can pass through into the urine, resulting in severe albuminuria.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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