Enzymes Facilitate Diagnosis Of Genetic Diseases

While many diseases have long been known to result from alterations in an individual's DNA, tools for the detection of genetic mutations have only recently become widely available. These techniques rely upon the catalytic efficiency and specificity of enzyme catalysts. For example, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) relies upon the ability of enzymes to serve as catalytic amplifiers to analyze the DNA present in biologic and forensic samples. In the PCR technique, a thermostable DNA polymerase, directed by appropriate oligonu-cleotide primers, produces thousands of copies of a sample of DNA that was present initially at levels too low for direct detection.

The detection of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) facilitates prenatal detection of hereditary disorders such as sickle cell trait, beta-thalassemia, infant phenylketonuria, and Huntington's disease. Detection of RFLPs involves cleavage of double-stranded DNA by restriction endonucleases, which can detect subtle alterations in DNA that affect their recognized sites. Chapter 40 provides further details concerning the use of PCR and restriction enzymes for diagnosis.

Figure 7-11. Normal and pathologic patterns of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes in human serum. LDH isozymes of serum were separated by electrophoresis and visualized using the coupled reaction scheme shown on the left. (NBT, nitroblue tetrazolium; PMS, phenazine methylsulfate). At right is shown the stained electropherogram. Pattern A is serum from a patient with a myocardial infarct; B is normal serum; and C is serum from a patient with liver disease. Arabic numerals denote specific LDH isozymes.

Figure 7-11. Normal and pathologic patterns of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes in human serum. LDH isozymes of serum were separated by electrophoresis and visualized using the coupled reaction scheme shown on the left. (NBT, nitroblue tetrazolium; PMS, phenazine methylsulfate). At right is shown the stained electropherogram. Pattern A is serum from a patient with a myocardial infarct; B is normal serum; and C is serum from a patient with liver disease. Arabic numerals denote specific LDH isozymes.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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  • valerio
    How enzye facilitate diagnosis of genetic diseases?
    6 years ago

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