Carbohydrates Are Aldehyde Or Ketone Derivatives Of Polyhydric Alcohols

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(1) Monosaccharides are those carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates: They may be classified as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hex-oses, or heptoses, depending upon the number of carbon atoms; and as aldoses or ketoses depending upon whether they have an aldehyde or ketone group. Examples are listed in Table 13-1.

(2) Disaccharides are condensation products of two monosaccharide units. Examples are maltose and sucrose.

(3) Oligosaccharides are condensation products of two to ten monosaccharides; maltotriose* is an example.

*Note that this is not a true triose but a trisaccharide containing three a-glucose residues.

(4) Polysaccharides are condensation products of more than ten monosaccharide units; examples are the starches and dextrins, which may be linear or branched polymers. Polysaccharides are sometimes classified as hexosans or pentosans, depending upon the identity of the constituent monosaccharides.

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