Synthetic Nucleotide Analogs Are Used In Chemotherapy

Synthetic analogs of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotides altered in either the heterocyclic ring or the sugar moiety have numerous applications in clinical medicine. Their toxic effects reflect either inhibition of enzymes essential for nucleic acid synthesis or their incorporation into nucleic acids with resulting disruption of base-pairing. Oncologists employ 5-fluoro- or 5-iodouracil, 3-deoxyuridine, 6-thioguanine and 6-mer-captopurine, 5- or 6-azauridine, 5- or 6-azacytidine,...

Gluconeogenesis Control of the Blood Glucose

Gluconeogenesis

Mayes, PhD, DSc, amp David A. Bender, PhD Gluconeogenesis is the term used to include all pathways responsible for converting noncarbohydrate precursors to glucose or glycogen. The major substrates are the glucogenic amino acids and lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Liver and kidney are the major gluco-neogenic tissues. Gluconeogenesis meets the needs of the body for glucose when carbohydrate is not available in sufficient amounts from the diet or from glycogen reserves. A supply of...