After Birth Ebook

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Once your pregnancy is over and done with, your baby is happily in your arms, and youre headed back home from the hospital, youll begin to realize that things have only just begun. Over the next few days, weeks, and months, youre going to increasingly notice that your entire life has changed in more ways than you could ever imagine.

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Pregnancy Without Pounds

This proven program will get you through your pregnancy in better shape than most other women in as little as 27 minutes a day and with minimal effort. It contains all the information that I believe will Help you to look and feel like I did barefoot and beautiful! Inside you will learn Exactly how to avoid unwanted pounds, overcome your food cravings, care for your skin, dress to kill and look like one Hot Mama. Ive also put together Fifty simple, yet extremely effective pregnancy-friendly exercises and stretches to keep you and your body looking and feeling Great (includes 3 different fitness programs depending on Your fitness level)!

Pregnancy Without Pounds Summary


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Contents: Ebook
Author: Michelle Moss
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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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C HIT in Children and Neonates

Platelet aggregation studies, reported a neonate who may have developed fatal HIT shortly after birth. More specific activation or antigen assays were not performed in either study, however. A recent study of 108 neonates who received UFH flushes found no HIT antibodies using a sensitive antigen assay (Klenner et al., 2003).

Genotoxicity and Potential for Carcinogenesis

One major concern for retroviral vectors including lentivirus is, that inappropriate retroviral integration might lead to insertional mutagenesis and malignancies. This concern was heightened following the development of fatal lymphomas in 3 out of 10 rhesus macaque recipients of bone marrow cells contaminated with RCR (124). It should be noted that the macaques that developed malignancies were severely immunocompro-mised, and similar experiments using less severe immunosuppression showed no evidence of any pathology resulting from systemic inoculation of wild type MMLV (125,126). Nonetheless, the potential for such adverse events now has clinical precedent (127), with recent reports of clonal T-cell proliferation in 2 out of 11 immunodeficient pediatric patients emerging more than 2 yr after correction of interleukin receptor common y-chain deficiency SCID. This serious adverse event has caused major effect on clinical gene therapy trials worldwide. As described above, in this trial,...

Bone Cartilage and Ligaments

Growth plates are the sites of bone growth during childhood and early adulthood. They are positioned at the spongy ends of the long bones. Os-teoblasts proliferate on the surface of the growth plate and make new bone. The long bones of the average infant lengthen by 50 during the first year after birth. The bone growth rate drops to about 7 per year by age 3. The bone growth stops around 30 years of age, and between 35 and 40 the osteoblast activity begins to decline gradually while osteoclast activity continues at previous levels. Nevertheless, among all the mature tissues and organs of adult body, only one has the ability to remake itself and that is bone. When broken, bone reconstructs itself by triggering biological processes reminiscent of those that occur in the embryo. The repair begins when a class of stem cells travel to the damaged site and undertake specific tasks such as producing a calcified scaffolding around the break. Thus, a break or a fracture uncovers the remaking...

Behavior And Reproduction

Newborns are able to leave the nest very soon after birth. They are able to fly, hop, and walk along twigs when just a few days old. Cracids spend a great deal of time in the trees, hopping from branch to branch and walking on twigs. Cracids fall prey to jaguars and other big cats.

Head Circumference OFC

Head Circumference Lubchenco

Although height and weight charts after birth are quite different for North American and North European populations, head circumference growth data after birth are not. Therefore, we have included only one figure for head circumference for each sex. We have added charts depicting neonatal head circumference size for North European males and females because these charts include earlier gestational ages compared to the data by Lubchenko et al. (Figs. 6.2-6.4)

Postnatal development

Eventually, provision of milk by the mother comes to an end and the offspring are weaned. In altricial mammal species, there is usually a fairly constant lactation period, and weaning tends to occur within a few weeks after birth. In preco-cial mammals, the lactation period can be quite variable and it may last months or even years. In fact, there is some indication that for certain hoofed mammals and primates there is a feedback relationship between the frequency of suckling and the mother's resumption of fertility, driven by the level of maternal nutrition. If food availability is low, the mother produces more dilute milk, which results in an increased suckling frequency. A higher frequency of suckling can suppress maternal fertility and also lead to an extension of the lactation period.

Reproductive biology

Actively expels the young (by forcefully moving back and forth) over a period of a few hours through an opening at the top of the pouch. Usually, about 100 young are born in this manner, but some species produce up to 400 young, whereas others produce between 10 and 50 (measuring close to 0.4 in, or 1 cm) pairs may have several broods in one year. The young do not receive any further parental care and are on their own immediately after birth. Young may congregate, and their sexes can be distinguished after a few months, when the pouches of the males become apparent (i.e., when they become sexually mature). Young resemble adults shortly after birth. As many as 1,000 young are produced per year by each couple in this manner, although the actual number varies between species, as reproduction may occur continuously.

Treatment during delivery

AZT, within 6 h after birth AZT, within 6 h after birth (see above) 4 x 2 mg kg orally for 46 weeks second adm. within 48-72 hrs postpartum. Dosage adaptation if possible enzyme induction in case of previous maternal NVP therapy administration of the 1st dose 2 hrs prepartal 2nd dose immediately after birth and 3rd dose after 48-72 hrs. AF amniotic fluid NN neonate pp postpartum SE side effect If HIV infection is discovered only after birth, a combination prophylaxis, begun within 48 hours, seems to be far more effective than a prophylaxis which is initiated only after 3 days (transmission rates 9.2 vs. 18.4 , Wade 1998). However, even then, a certain positive effect of AZT prophylaxis as opposed to no prophylaxis can be still be verified (18.4 vs. 26.6 ) (Table 7).

Neuronal cell formation in the hippocampal formation

Entorhinal cortex are close to what has been observed in adults (Arnold and Trojanowski, 1996a Humphrey, 1967). The only exception to this general pattern concerns the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, which first appears during the 13-14th gestational weeks and continues to grow after birth (Humphrey, 1967 Seress, 1992). However, formation of cell layers includes migration of neurons from the place of final cell division. Therefore, in humans, there are no direct data about the exact time of final cell multiplication in the hip-pocampal formadon. zone and move toward the developing dentate gyrus (figure 4.2C). There are labeled cells in all layers of the subicular complex and entorhinal cortex (figure 4.3A,B see color plate 2). Often, the type of labeled cells, based on the morphology of cell nuclei, is unclear but in several cases, glial and endothelial cells are positively identified among the labeled elements (figure 4.3A). While there are no multiplying cells in the...

Clinical Evidence for Deficiencies of TCell Mediated Immunity in the Neonate

In contrast, infection in utero can have dramatic, damaging effects on an otherwise healthy fetus (Brown and Abernathy, 1998 Gandhi and Khanna, 2004). Although the majority of infected infants are asymptomatic, 5-10 will suffer severe neurologic damage including microcephaly, seizures, deafness, and retardation. Additional infants will appear asymptomatic at birth but will progress to have significant hearing loss. Infection acquired after birth is usually asymptomatic, but interestingly both congenital infection and post-natal infection through the pre-school years result in prolonged shedding of the virus, while in adults such continuous shedding after primary CMV infection is limited to approximately 6 months after acquisition. This indicates an inability of the neonatal and infant immune system to control the virus compared to the immunocompetent adult (Stagno, 1983). and flow cytometry, they showed that CMV-specific CD8+ T cells could be detected pre-natally and early after...

Influence of Age and Sex on Metal Toxicity

It has long been claimed that certain age groups are at increased risk (i.e., young children and the elderly). During the past decade, quantitative data have become available to document these claims. Several investigations have dealt with young animals and children, and data on elderly people are also forthcoming. The fetus is regarded as especially vulnerable, because many functions are not fully developed until after birth, and several possibilities exist for contact between the fetus and toxic metals. The toxic effects caused by metals on development of the fetus are discussed in Chapter 12. Methylmercury is known to cross the placental barrier and to accumulate in the fetus. It is well documented that fetal exposure to methylmercury can cause intrauterine methylmercury poisoning (Chapter 33). Lead crosses the placental barrier, and prenatal lead exposure may play a role for later development. The fetal brain does not tolerate lead to the same extent as the adult brain does (cf...

Cardiovascular System

Skewed Septum Tetralogy Fallot

The septum secundum forms to the right of the septum primum and fuses (after birth) with the septum primum to form the atrial septum. occur soon after birth and is facilitated by the increased left atrial pressure that results from changes in pulmonary circulation. 2. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the ductus arteriosus, a connection between the left pulmonary artery and the arch of the aorta, fails to close. Normally, the ductus arteriosus closes within a few hours after birth via smooth muscle contraction to form the ligamentum arteriosum.

Conduction System

Mri Descending Aorta Azygos Vein

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the ductus arteriosus, a connection between the left pulmonary artery and the arch of the aorta, does not close. Normally, the ductus arteriosus closes via smooth muscle contraction within a few hours after birth and forms the ligamentum arteriosum. PDA causes a left-to-right shunting of blood from the aorta back into the pulmonary circulation. A PDA is very common in premature infants and also may result from maternal rubella infection during pregnancy. Prostaglandin E, intrauterine asphyxia, and neonatal asphyxia sustain patency of the ductus arteriosus. Prostaglandin inhibitors (e.g.,

SNRPN Small Nucleoribonucleoprotein Polypeptide N

Like other genes in the PWS area of humans, the mouse Snrpn is expressed from the paternal allele, as shown by RNAse protection assays (Leff et al., 1992), and mice having maternal UPD7 for the relevant area do not express the Snrpn gene and die shortly after birth (Cattanach et al., 1992). Additional mouse loci encode related splicing factors to Snrpn such as SmB the latter, however, is no substitute for Snrpn (Glenn et al., 1997). Studies of the Snrpn knock-out mouse showed, however, that the neuronal-specific alternative splicing of the RNAs encoding several different classes of protein proceeds normally (Huntriss et al., 1994).

Placenta Amniotic Fluid and Umbilical Cord

Chorion Monozygotic Twins

The maternal surface of the placenta is characterized by 15-20 cotyledons that impart a cobblestone appearance. The surface is dark red and oozes blood after birth owing to torn maternal blood vessels. Figure 5-4. Fetal circulation. Note the three shunts and the changes that occur after birth (remnants). Figure 5-4. Fetal circulation. Note the three shunts and the changes that occur after birth (remnants).

Success Failures Barriers

Prevention of MTCT programs has also succeeded in some developing countries such as well known examples like Thailand and others including Brazil (Kreitchmann et al., 2004), Western Cape Province in South Africa (Colvin et al., 2005), and Cameroon (Ayouba et al., 2003). One of the reasons for the lack of public and professional appreciation of these successes is the negative publicity which has attended the use of sdNVP to reduce MTCT. Single-dose NVP (a tablet to the mother during labor, a dose to the baby soon after birth) (Guay et al., 1999 Jackson et al., 2003) is a wonderfully simple and safe regimen which is both affordable and effective in developing countries. The criticisms have often been politically inspired and related to presumed toxicities of the drug reliability of the scientific evidence of efficacy and conduct of the key trial in Uganda (HIVNET012) (Institute of Medicine Report, April 2005). None of these are valid and have obscured the large scale benefits which have...

Skull Anatomy Labeling

Label The Lateral Features The Skull

E xamine the fetal skull (fig. 13.6). Note that the skull is incompletely developed and that the cranial bones are separated by fibrous membranes. These membranous areas are called fontanels, or soft spots. The fontanels close as the cranial bones grow together. The posterior fontanel usually closes within a few months after birth, whereas the anterior fontanel may not close until the middle or end of the second year. What other

Body Proportions At Different Ages

Development Fetus Month Month

A child with fetal alcohol syndrome has a characteristic small head, misshapen eyes, and a flat face and nose (fig. 23B). He or she grows slowly before and after birth. Intellect is impaired, ranging from minor learning disabilities to mental retardation. Chemicals in cigarette smoke stress a fetus. Carbon monoxide crosses the placenta and plugs up the sites on the fetus's hemoglobin molecules that would normally bind oxygen. Other chemicals in smoke prevent nutrients from reaching the fetus. Studies comparing placentas of smokers and nonsmokers show that smoke-exposed placentas lack important growth factors. The result of all of these assaults is poor growth before and after birth. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy raises the risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, prematurity, and low birth weight.

Regulation of synaptogenesis and control of synaptic maintenance and elimination

The major wave of synaptogenesis in the mammalian brain starts shortly after birth, and lasts for several weeks in rodents and for a much longer period in humans. This wave of massive (as hundreds of billions of synapses have to occur within a relatively short time span) synaptogenesis precisely follows the massive generation of mature astrocytes, which happens during the perinatal period. This sequence of events is not coincidental as indeed astrocytes assist synapse appearance.

Procedure A The Arterial System

Inferior Mesenteric Vein Anatomy

Trace the pulmonary trunk and locate the short vessel, the ductus arteriosus, that is connected to the aorta (fig. 47.2). This connection, found in fetal circulation, shunts blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta as a partial bypass of nonfunctional, developing fetal lungs. This shunt becomes occluded after birth (forming the ligamentum arteriosum), allowing a fully functional pulmonary circuit.

Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities

Trisomy Zygote

Triploidy is a condition in which cells contain 69 chromosomes. It results in spontaneous abortion of the conceptus or only brief survival of the liveborn infant after birth. Triploidy occurs as a result of either a failure of meiosis in a germ cell (e.g., fertilization of a diploid egg by a haploid sperm) or dispermy (two sperm that fertilize one egg). A. Trisomy 13 (Patau's syndrome) is characterized by profound mental retardation, congenital heart defects, cleft lip and palate, omphalocele, and Polydactyly. Infants usually die soon after birth. B. Trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) is characterized by mental retardation, congenital heart defects, small facies and prominent occiput, overlapping fingers, and rocker-bot-tom heels. Infants usually die soon after birth.

Biosurveillance Of The Healthcare System

6 Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-65), a Hungarian obstetrician, introduced antiseptic prophylaxis into medicine. In the 1840s, puerperal or childbirth fever, a bacterial infection of the female genital tract after childbirth, was taking the lives of up to 30 of women who gave birth in hospitals. Women who gave birth at home remained relatively unaffected. Semmelweis observed that women examined by student doctors who had not washed their hands after leaving the autopsy room had very high death rates. When a colleague who had received a scalpel cut died of infection, Semmelweis concluded that puerperal fever was septic and contagious. He ordered students to wash their hands with chlorinated lime before examining patients as a result, the maternal death rate in his hospital was reduced from 12 to 1 in two years. Source Copyright 1999,2000.

Development Of Intestinal Microbiota In Dogs And Cats

Intestinal colonization is a gradual process starting immediately after birth. In newborn puppies and kittens the alimentary canal is sterile but is quickly inhabited by bacteria from birth canal and environment. The dam usually licks the newborn thoroughly thus transferring its own indigenous bacteria to her offspring. Within 24 hours the numbers of bacteria in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn puppy are similar to those of an adult dog (2).

Sequences of CNS myelination

Myelin sheaths appear in the motor root fibers of the spinal nerves at the end of the fourth fetal month, while the sensory fibers begin to myelinate at the end of the fifth month. The motor nerve roots reach their adult pattern of myelination at about term while the sensory nerve rootlets continue to myelinate for several months after birth. Among the cranial nerves, the roots of the eighth pair are the first to show myelinated fibers. At the end of the fifth fetal month, the roots of both divisions of the eighth nerve are myelinated. The oculomotor nerves (III, IV, VI) and the motor division of the trigeminal nerve myelinate next, at about the same time. As in the spinal roots, the cranial motor roots seem to myelinate at a faster pace than the sensory roots. The cycle of myelinadon of the cranial nerve roots appears to be completed early in the first postnatal year. lamic nuclei. Projections from the specific nuclei of the basal complex (or relay nuclei) myelinate earlier and...

Antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis Combination prophylaxis

Standard combination antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV infection should be discussed and offered to all pregnant women with HIV regardless of the viral load. They are clearly recommended if the viral load is 10,000 copies ml. Combination prophylaxis should be introduced temporarily from 32+0 weeks gestation until immediately after birth (Table 4).

Gestation and neonate type

Period Gestation

An inverse relationship between the average number of offspring produced at birth (litter size) and the gestation period is only to be expected. For a given uterus volume, there is clearly a trade-off between the number of developing offspring and the extent to which they can develop prior to birth. One corollary of this is that, for any given adult body size, al-tricial offspring must grow more after birth than precocial offspring.

Lack of Association between HS and Endocrinopathies

Lapse after pregnancy, as well as premenstrual and menstrual exacerbations are usually noted, suggesting that hormones, at least oestrogens, may influence the course of the disease. Oestrogens in fact are known to interfere with inflammatory processes, independently of a direct genomic action of the steroids. This could account for their influence on the natural course of inflammatory diseases, such as acne, but also HS. Other observations in HS in terms of premenstrual and or menstrual exacerbations may be unrelated to the oestrogen or androgen dependency of the disease.

Methods of Age Determination in Bats

After birth, bats grow quickly, achieving almost full adult size prior to fledging (Barclay, 1994 Jones and MacLarnon, 2001). During this time, long bones grow linearly and many researchers use forearm length measured with calipers to determine age of growing juveniles. In fact, this method provides very accurate estimates of age (Anthony, 1988). Its usefulness, however, is restricted to the first 2 to 6 weeks after birth, depending on species (Brunet-Rossinni and Wilkinson, in review). During this growth phase, the cartilaginous epiphyseal growth plates of the phalanges in the wing first expand to generate the phalangeal growth necessary for wing development and then become increasingly calcified. This process results in a linear increase and subsequent linear decrease in total length of the cartilaginous region between the boney diaphysis of a metacarpal and the boney diaphysis of the proximal phalanx (a.k.a. total gap). Epiphyseal growth plates are easily visualized by...

Postpartum depression

Research seems to indicate that postpartum depression is unlikely to occur in a patient with an otherwise psychologically uncomplicated pregnancy and past history. There is no association of postpartum depression with marital status, social class, or the number of live children born to the mother. However, there seems to be an increased chance to develop this disorder after pregnancy loss. Care for a newborn can be overwhelming, and some women experience postpartum depression shortly after birth. (Layne Kennedy CORBIS. Photo reproduced by permission.) Care for a newborn can be overwhelming, and some women experience postpartum depression shortly after birth. (Layne Kennedy CORBIS. Photo reproduced by permission.)

Relationships Between The Intestinal Immune System And Intestinal Microbiota

The intestinal microbiota also interacts with the other lines of defense, innate and acquired immunities. These effects can be of particular importance during the early postnatal life that is a period of high risk for intestinal disorders due to enteric pathogens and or food hypersensitivities. During the neonatal period, mammalian species exhibit some degree of reduced immunocompetence that could be attributed to a functional immaturity in cells involved in immune intestinal responses. It could be also attributed to the lack of bacterial stimulation given by the intestinal microbiota which is absent during the fetal life. After birth, a well-balanced bacterial colonization will educate the IIS in a good manner allowing immunoregulatory mechanisms governing IIS functions to operate rapidly.

Creating Giant Mice Through Gene Regulation

In 1982, a group of molecular geneticists led by Richard Palmiter at the University of Washington produced gigantic mice that grew to almost twice the size of normal mice. Palmiter and his colleagues created these large mice through genetic engineering, by injecting the rat gene for growth hormone into the nuclei of fertilized mouse embryos and then implanting these embryos into surrogate mouse mothers. In a few embryos, the rat gene became incorporated into the mouse chromosome and, after birth, these trans-

Varicella Zoster Virus Infections during Pregnancy

John Kennedy Death Body

At any stage during pregnancy, chickenpox may cause intrauterine infection. Maternal varicella resulting in viremia may transmit the virus to the fetus by either transplacental spread, or by ascending infection from lesions in the birth canal. Furthermore, direct contact or respiratory droplet can lead to infection after birth. The consequences for the infant depend on the time of maternal disease. They range from asymptomatic infection to fetal loss especially in case of severe maternal disease. Primary VZV infection during first two trimesters after birth (risk 20-50 , mortality 20-25 ) No risk for severe maternal, fetal or neonatal infections

Development of principal pyramidal and granule cells and nonprincipal GABAergic neurons of the primate hippocampus

Granule cells, hilar mossy cells, and CA3 pyramidal cells of monkeys are in an advanced stage of development at birth (Seress and Ribak, 1995a,b). Most granule cells have a complete dendritic arbor, although both spine density and the number of synapses in the molecular layer increase after birth (Seress, Baumgartner, and Ribak, 1995). Mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells display thorny excrescences, and terminals of mossy fibers (axons of granule cells) establish multiple synapses with those excrescences (Seress and Ribak, 1995a,b). These features indicate that in monkeys developmental events are mainly prenatal, but the chronological sequence of synaptic development is similar to what occurs in the rat. At present we have no data about the development of CA1 pyramidal cells in monkeys. Our preliminary data indicate a change in spine density and myelin formation up to the postnatal seventh month. In conclusion, the monkey hippocampal formation displays a fast and dynamic development...

Physical characteristics

The body coloration can consist of a solid shade in some, the belly is lighter, while in others, the pelage is patterned. In some species, the patterned coloration is for crypsis and camouflage, such as light stripes against a darker ground that help break the body outline. Such a pelage pattern is seen in the aptly named zebra duiker (Cephalophus zebra) and the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii). In others such as gemsbok (Oryx gazella), contrasting colors and body markings are used for intraspecific displays. The sexes often are differently colored, with males usually having the darker pelage. Frequently within species, there are also age-specific colorations. For example, for the first few weeks or months after birth, the pelage color of young is quite different from that of adults, such as in the orange-brown coat of young bison (Bison bison), which contrasts to the dark burnt-sienna brown of the adults. In species such as blackbuck (Antilope...

Gnotobiotic Ruminants in Studies into the Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Gnotobiotic ruminants can be used to observe the development of the rumen ecosystem as well as to study the relations between rumen and its microbiota. The rumen microbiota directly affects the development of the rumen epithelium and the level of intermediary metabolism by the action of rumen fermentation and its final metabolites. Fonty and coworkers (90), using meroxenic lambs demonstrated that the functions of the rumen and the stability of the ecosystem depended on the complexity and diversity of the microbiota. In the light of the present knowledge it is not possible to precisely determine the composition of the minimum microbiota enabling rumen development and function. Fonty and coworkers (91) also studied the role of rumen microbiota in the development of the rumen ecosystem and functional development of the rumen at an early age. Their results suggest that the rumen microbiota of the very young lamb plays an essential role in the establishment of the rumen ecosystem and in...

Kidney Lobes and Lobules

Lobe The Kidney

Ization of the kidney is conspicuous in the developing fetal kidney (Fig. 19.5). Each lobe is reflected as a convexity on the outer surface of the organ, but they usually disappear after birth. The surface convexities typical of the fetal kidney may persist, however, until the teenage years and, in some cases, into adulthood. Each human kidney contains 8 to 18 lobes. Kidneys of some animals possess only one pyramid these kidneys are classified as unilobar, in contrast to the multilobar kidney of the human.

Animal Models Of Poag

Membrane trafficking and cellular morphogenesis. OPTN is induced by TNF-a and binds to an inhibitor of TNF-a and the adenovirus E3-14.7 kDa protein. To determine the effects of human glaucoma mutations in a transgenic mouse system, mice over-expressing wild type OPTN, OPTN carrying the glaucoma associated mutation E50K, and OPTN with exon5 deleted were constructed. Although wild-type OPTN do not show any abnormalities and the exon 5 deleted construction was found to be lethal prenatally, mice transgenic for the E50K mutant OPTN show steep optic nerve cupping with rearrangement of supporting tissue and blood vessels 18 weeks after birth (see Figure 68.6). The RGC and astrocyte loss observed is similar to the end phase changes seen in human glaucoma patients. Understanding the mechanism underlying normal tension glaucoma in these transgenic mice will enhance our understanding of each step leading to optic nerve cupping and how to prevent it. Based on the success of the mouse model, use...

Animal Models Of Macular Degeneration

In 1986, a single cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicu-laris) with heavy drusen was found in the Tsukuba Primate Research Center. After 19 years of mating experiments, that single pedigree has grown to having 57 affected and 182 unaffected monkeys. Macular changes are observed as early as two years after birth, with basal laminar deposits first appearing in the macular region and progressing toward the peripheral retina throughout the lifetime (see Figure 68.4). In all the cases examined no abnormalities were found in the optic disc, retinal blood vessels, or choroidal vasculatures. The affected monkeys share phenotypic similarities with the early stages of ARMD, such as drusen and accumulation of lipofuscin. The immunohistochemical and proteome analysis of drusen in these monkeys share significant similarity with composition of age-related macular degeneration monkeys and also with previously reported human drusen composition. The meaning of this observation is that early onset monkeys...

African brushtailed porcupine

Birth, eyes are open, teeth are already present, and hair (but not spines) covers the body. Young are born small, only 3 of mother's body weight. Weight at birth averages 5 oz (150 g) with a range of 3.5-6.3 oz (100-175 g, then increases to 18 oz (500 g) after one month, 2 lb (1 kg) after three months, 3 lb (1.5 kg) after five months, and 22 lb (10 kg) after 11 months. Both parents spend much time and effort raising offspring. Mothers nurse nearly constantly for first two months after birth teats are located laterally on the chest. Sexual maturity is reached at about two years. Documented to live up to 23 years of age.

Multiplicity Of Human Sult Activities And Purification Studies

Initial studies of the heterogeneity of the human SULTs focused on two types of SULT activity, the high levels of hydroxysteroid sulfation in the human adrenal gland and multiple forms of phenol SULT activity in human platelets. The human adrenal is responsible for the high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate present in human fetal plasma. Micromolar concentrations of DHEA-sulfate in adult plasma are due to the synthesis and sulfation of DHEA in the reticular layer of the adrenal cortex (Parker, 1999). The synthesis of such large amounts of DHEA-sulfate in the adrenal gland is limited to humans and some higher primates (Parker, 1999). In humans, large amounts of DHEA-sulfate are synthesized and released by the fetal adrenal however, the fetal adrenal layer disappears shortly after birth and DHEA synthesis almost ceases. High levels of DHEA-sulfate synthesis begin again at adrenarche with the highest production in young adults. Adrenarche refers to the

Plate 99 Mammary Gland Late Proliferative And Lactating

The initial secretion in the first days after birth is called colostrum. This premilk is an alkaline secretion with a higher protein, vitamin A, sodium, and chloride content than milk and a lower lipid, carbohydrate, and potassium content. Considerable amounts of antibodies are contained in colostrum, and these provide the newborn with passive immunity to many antigens. The antibodies are produced by the plasma cells in the stroma of the breast and are carried across the glandular cells in a manner similar to that for secretory IgA in the salivary glands and intestine. A few days after parturition, the secretion of colostrum stops and lipid-rich milk is produced.

Gross Description

TOF is the most common of the cyanotic congenital heart diseases. This may be in part because it does not lead to intra-uterine fetal demise. There are no significant hemodynamic effects to the fetus, and the disease only becomes manifest after birth. The reasons for this will become obvious as we discuss the pathology and pathophysiology. The primary abnormality in TOF is obstruction to pulmonary outflow. The lungs are essentially nonfunctional in utero. There is high pulmonary vascular resistance with shunting of oxygenated blood returning from the placenta through the patent foramen ovale and patent ductus arteriosus into the systemic circulation. Thus, obstruction to right ventricular outflow has no effect. It is only after birth, with a fall in pulmonary vascular resistance and closure of the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus that symptoms may develop. Their severity and rapidity of onset depend on several factors to be described. Before we address them, however, we should...

Regulation of the Immune Responses

It is interesting to compare these experimental results to those described in human neonates by Lodinova-Zadnikova and coworkers (85). In their study, they colonized the digestive tract of babies just after birth with a given strain of E. coli. In these conditions E. coli is able to establish durably in the digestive tract of newborns as described previously (86). After 10 years (preterm infants) and 20 years (full-term infants), differences in occurrence of food allergies between colonized and control subjects were statistically significant 21 versus 53 , and 36 versus 51 respectively. Furthermore, recent clinical trials using ingestion of a strain of probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, during the last month of pregnancy to women and after birth to babies during 6 months, reduced the incidence of atopic eczema in at-risk children during the first 4 years of life (87). However, in this case, IgE levels were not decreased in the treated group as compared with the placebo group. The...

Useful Parameters and Landmarks

Growth velocity is most rapid immediately after birth and up to three years of age, after which there is a continued deceleration of growth until puberty. The adolescent growth peak in girls is at approximately 12 years, and in boys at approximately 14 years of age. It is useful to compare growth at yearly intervals, although in infancy shorter time intervals will be used because the velocity is greater.

Effects of environment on diverse phases of synaptogenesis

Very early after birth, when the main aspects of synap-toarchitectony are still being laid down. The patterns of ocular dominance columns are already adult-like in the primary visual cortex of newborn macaques (Horton and Hocking, 1996). Complex receptive field properties, such as face recognition, of inferotemporal neurons are already adult-like, as early as investigators were able to test, i.e., only a few weeks after birth in macaques (Rodman, 1994). The possibility of a cortical circuitry prewired even for highly integrated functions has been invoked (Rodman, 1994). A cardinal cognitive function thought to be subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex i.e., performance on Piaget's A not B task see this volume, Stiles (chapter 27), Diamond (chapter 29), Luciana (chapter 41) is present long before the end of the rapid phase 3 of synaptogenesis a few weeks after birth (Bourgeois, Goldman-Rakic, and Rakic, 1994 Diamond and Goldman-Rakic, 1989 Goldman-Rakic, Bourgeois,...

Biological Theories of the Paraphilias

In another recent study, an association was identified between pedophilia and retrospectively recalled childhood accidents resulting in unconsciousness (125,126). Twice as many pedophiles as nonpedophiles reported head injuries with unconsciousness before the age of 6, suggesting that neurodevelopmental perturbations occurring in a window of time after birth may also increase the risk of pedophilia. The authors of these studies cautiously point out that more data are needed before the findings can be interpreted with confidence. Whether head injury causes a neurodevelopmental abnormality that increases the risk of pedophilia or whether a pre-existing neurodevelopmental problem increases the risk of both head injury and pedophilia is unknown.

Development of the

Vesicles Sclera

The outer layer of the optic cup forms a single layer of pigmented cells (Fig. 23.3c) Pigmentation begins at the end of the fifth week. The inner layer undergoes a complex differentiation into the nine layers of the neural retina. The photoreceptor (rod and cone) cells as well as the bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells and nerve fibers are present by the seventh month. The macular depression begins to develop during the eighth month and is not complete until about 6 months after birth.

Development of Intestinal Motility

Enteric nerve cells continue to differentiate throughout the first couple of years of life, which means that the infant's nervous system is plastic and developing 37 . There is clear evidence that the development of the ENS continues after birth. In rats, NO synthase-express-ing neurons are already present at birth but increase in number and location during the first 3 weeks of postnatal life 32 . Normal ganglion cell distribution is present at 24 weeks of gestation in humans. These ganglia continue to mature on into childhood. Previous studies on human bowel specimens have revealed that the density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive ganglion cells decreases in the submucous plexus of the human distal colon and the myenteric plexus of human small bowel, colon and rectum 38, 39 .

Telomeric Rearrangements

Chromosomal anomalies may be numerical or structural. Structural changes result from the breakage and rearrangement of chromosome parts, and animal experiments have shown that they can be induced by a variety of exposures, including ionizing radiation and certain viral infections and toxic substances. They occur as duplications, deletions, translocations, insertions, or inversions of chromosome parts or as rings on selected chromosomes. Numerical anomalies arise through nondisjunction during meiosis or mitosis, through lagging of chromosomes at anaphase of cell division, or through fertilization by two sperm (i.e., triploidy). Chromosomal anomalies as a whole contribute more to fetal loss than to live births and MR. Kline, Stein, and Susser (1989) estimated that from 8 weeks after the last menstrual period, the proportion of chromosomal aberrations lost by miscarriage exceeds 90 for all but trisomy 21 (DS), XXX, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), and XYY. In survivors after birth in...

Stillbirth and perinatal death

Mothers of babies who were stillborn, or died soon after birth, almost always develop grief reactions as found after other forms of bereavement. They are at high risk of prolonged depression and have an increased suicide rate. Fathers are also affected but have not been so thoroughly studied. Management after neonatal bereavement should include opportunities for the parents to see and touch the dead child, encouragement to give the baby a name, take a photograph, hold a funeral, receive an explanation for the death and obstetric genetic advice about future pregnancies, and bereavement counselling from an experienced professional. Such measures have been shown to reduce the duration of psychiatric morbidity.

Predisposing factors

Most cases probably have a multifactorial causation, including genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorder, biological factors such as poor nutrition before and or after birth, and a psychologically stressful and or deprived environment. Individual factors associated with childhood psychiatric disorder include the following

Causes and symptoms

Other neurological factors include lesions to the brain, congenital rubella, undiagnosed and untreated phenylketonuria (PKU), tuberous sclerosis, and Rett's disorder (a related condition in which the baby develops in an apparently normal manner through age five months, and then begins to lose communicative and social interaction skills). There is also evidence of a higher proportion of perinatal complications (complications arising around the time of giving birth) among children with autistic symptoms. These complications include maternal bleeding after the first trimester and meconium in the amniotic fluid. (Meconium is a substance that accumulates in the bowel of the developing fetus and is discharged shortly after birth.) Some evidence suggests that the use of medications during pregnancy may be related to the development of autistic symptoms. As newborns, children with autistic behaviors show a higher rate of respiratory illness and anemia than healthy children.

Ontogeny and development

Placental mammals constitute the largest group of mammals. In these species, which includes, cats, dogs, horses, bats, rats and humans, fertilized ova migrate to the uterus where they implant and fuse with the lining of the uterus called en-dometrium, which then leads to the creation of a placenta, a highly vascular membrane that acts as the exchange barrier between embryo(s) and mother. Young develop inside the female tract to varying degrees, but even the most altricial of placental mammals (polar bears Ursus maritimus, for example) still are more developed at birth than marsupials. Internal development can be extremely advanced and lead to birth of young that are able to stand and run almost immediately after birth. Wildebeests, elephants and guinea pigs all have precocial young (offspring born fully developed) in this category.

Parnells moustached bat

Females bear a single young annually after a gestation period of about 50 days. The young are naked and helpless at birth. The timing of reproduction varies across the species' range, with births usually peaking around the start of the rainy season. For example, if mating occurs in autumn, the sperm is typically stored by females throughout hibernation, sometimes up to seven months, in the uterus. Within a few days of leaving their winter shelter, females ovulate one egg, and sperm are released. Fertilization and implantation then take place shortly afterwards. Typically, females of a population form a maternity colony at a site different than the hibernation site where breeding occurred. Gestation usually lasts from 40 to 50 days and results in a single offspring, usually in the late spring. Birth is a rather uneasy process hanging inverted, mothers grab the newborn as it emerges from the birth canal and the newborn in turn grabs the abdominal fur of the mother with its hind feet,...

Avian Models For Reproductive And Neuroendocrine Aging

In captivity under hospitable conditions, some birds (e.g., quail, budgies) have postreproductive life spans of one-third or more of the total life span (Woodard and Aplanalp, 1971 Holmes et al., 2001). Zebra finch hens exhibit significant declines in egg production after several years (Holmes, unpublished data). Female birds and mammals both produce the vast majority of their primary oocytes, or developing eggs, before or shortly after birth (Tokarz, 1978 Guraya, 1989). This fundamental reproductive trait sets birds and mammals apart from most female fishes, amphibians and reptiles, in which

Activation of the Intestinal Immune System

As in the neonate, the intestinal IgA-secreting cell (IgA-SC) number is much reduced in adult GF mice. Three weeks after bacterial colonization of the intestine, GF mice have an IgA-SC number equivalent to that found in CV mice. In the young, the adult number of IgA-SC is reached at the age of 6 weeks in mice and between 1 and 2 years in babies (7). This important delay might be attributed to the immaturity of the IIS of the newborn and or the suppressive effect of Abs present in the mother's milk. However, it might also be due to the stimulatory effect of the intestinal microbiota that has been established according to a sequential manner from birth to after weaning as described previously. To test the later hypothesis, several models of adult gnotobiotic mice were colonized by the entire digestive microbiota obtained from growing CV mice from one day after birth to 25 days of age (i.e., 6 days after weaning 62). In these experimental adult models, the effect of maternal milk, and...

SCFcKit and Lymphopoiesis

A particular class of adult mouse T cells, the CD8-TCR-y5 IELs found in the intestine, seem to be dependent on SCF c-kit in adult mice. These cells mature and undergo recombinational TCR gene rearrangements independently of the thymus are juxtaposed with intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and are thought to contribute to host firstline immune protection against bacterial and viral infection in the intestinal mucosa. TCR-y5 IEL populations become greatly depleted in W W and Sl Sld mice, both in the small intestine and in the large intestine, in an age-dependent fashion that starts approx 6 wk after birth (47,101). In parallel, the TCR-aP IEL population proliferates extensively and undergoes alterations with respect to CD4 CD8 subset ratios, in the small intestine of W W mice (47,101). Thus IEL homeostasis is disrupted, particularly in the

Trident leafnosed bat

Available evidence suggests that females are pregnant in the spring and give birth to a single young in early summer. Gestation time is estimated at 9-10 weeks, and the young nurse for 40 days after birth, after which they become independent. The time of mating is unknown. Most likely polygynous.

Congenital General Anosmia

To date, no causative genes have been described for isolated human CGA. However in mouse, three transduction genes have revealed behavioral phenotypes consistent with general anosmia when they are inactivated. Mice generated by homologous recombination, lacking the functional olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (Cnga2) (45), the stimulatory olfactory G-protein (Gnal), (46) or enzyme adenylyl cyclase III (Adcy3) (47), display profound reductions or even absence of physiological responses to odorants. Most ofthe homozygously deficient mice die within a few days after birth owing to an apparent inability to locate their mother's nipple and suckle.

Myelination of corticolimbic pathways

A broadly accepted marker for the functional maturation of the central nervous system is the formation of myelin sheaths, the insulating covering that surrounds axon shafts. It has long been known that various neural pathways myelinate at different stages of pre- and postnatal development and, for humans, this process has long been thought to continue well after birth, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (Flechsig, 1920 Yakovlev and Lecours, 1967). There is a general tendency, however, for more cephalad structures to myelinate later than those found at more caudal levels of the neuraxis, and for subcortical pathways to myelinate before cortical associational paths (Yakovlev and Lecours, 1967 see

Conclusion and functional implications

Week to the third postnatal month, when cell formation decreases to a minimum but cell migration continues and the first thorny spines appear on the dendrites of hilar mossy cells (2) from the third month to the first year, when cell migration ceases and the first adult-like large thorny excrescences appear on mossy and CA3 pyramidal cells, suggesting the beginning of a period of excessive synapse formation (3) from the first year to the third year, when the first mature-looking mossy cells appear (4) from the third year to the fifth year of life, when most neurons are adult-like both in the hilus and in Ammon's horn. Moreover, it is highly possible that synapse formation continues in the hippocampal formation after the fifth year and results in volumetric and sexual differences (Caviness et al., 1996). However, given currently available morphological methods, these later events cannot be studied. In addition, the number of newly formed granule cells is small after birth therefore, it...

General rules of myelination

Myelination of fiber systems mediating sensory input to the thalamus and cerebral cortex precedes myelination of those fiber systems carrying output relating to movement, and these latter fibers myelinate before the association fibers. Thus, the fiber systems mediating vestibular and acoustic input myelinate early and rapidly before birth, the optic radiation and the pre- and postcentral cortical thalamic projections myelinate rapidly during the first year after birth, and these sensory systems anticipate the myelination of the pyramidal systems. Postnatally, the visual and auditory systems tend to have shorter myelination intervals than do pyramidal systems (Kinney et al., 1994 Yakovlev and Lecours, 1967).

Modifiability of phase 3 of synaptogenesis

Using a more drastic intervention, we found that an early bilateral enucleation (Bourgeois and Rakic, 1996) does not alter the final mean densities of synapses reached at the end of rapid phase 3 and maintained during the phase 4 plateau in the striate cortex of blind monkeys. Our study also indicates that a few weeks after birth the proportions of synaptic contacts situated on dendritic spines (75 ) and shafts (25 ) were similar in all cortical layers of normal and enucleated animals. Four months after birth, the localization on dendritic spines or shafts in the thalamorecipient granular layers fails to mature properly in the absence of normal functional input from the periphery (figure 2.2C). These proportions, which normally become reversed during infancy in sublayers IVAB and IVC, were not reversed in the enucleates. The proportions of symmetric (20 ) versus asymmetric (80 ) synapses located on dendritic spines were within the normal range of variability in both groups of animals....

Future of Transgenic Mouse Approaches Need for Inducible Expression

Many eukaryotic promoters are under natural inducible control, providing a simple means for controlling the extent and duration of expression. For example, in the absence of heavy metals, the MT promoter has low activity. Treatment with cadmium or zinc, however, increases promoter activity several fold. The effectiveness of this induction scheme was demonstrated in transgenic mice harboring a mutated sheep MT promoter linked to an ovine GH-cod-ing sequence. When maintained on water supplemented with zinc, these mice secreted excessive levels of GH and displayed a giant phenotype (Shanahan et al., 1989). Mice overexpressing GH have also been made with a transgene that utilizes the PEPCK promoter (McGrane et al., 1988). Transcription of the chimeric gene occurred after birth in the kidney, liver, and adipose tissue. This promoter is regulated by composition of the diet a diet high in carbohydrates reduces expression whereas a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrate stimulates...

Biological Correlates of Gender

Although genes, chromosomes, hormones, neural structure, and other biological factors contribute to the determination of sex differences before and after birth, environmental factors such as differential cultural reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior, the imitation of gender-role models, and other psychosocial variables are at least as important (Wittig & Petersen, 1978). As with all human behavior, explanations of gender differences must take into account both the biology of the individual and the environment in which he or she has to function.

Manipulation of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota by Application of Probiotic Microorganisms

Development of the rumen microbiota in calves and lambs can be supported by microbial preparations mainly at the start of dry feeding. Effective use of microbial preparations in the young depends also on the level of knowledge of the so-called environmental factors in the rumen which determine the age at which a given microorganism may colonize the rumen and enable the development of cellulolytic microbiota (71). The specificity of using probiotics in calves, lambs and goatlings consists in the possibility of influencing the formation of the ruminal ecosystem application of selected strains of rumen microorganisms lays the foundation of a future population showing a high fermentation activity. Colonization with selected cultures of living microorganisms should enable an earlier and more stable onset of the ruminal type of digestion. Controlled action on the rumen microbiota in the young during milk nutrition is mainly related to the effect upon development of the microbiota adhering...

Diagnosis of HIV infection 18 months of age

The detection of anti-HIV antibodies does not prove an infection in infants. High titers of anti-HIV IgG are transferred transplacentally from mother to child. Maternal antibodies can be detected in children up to the age of 18 months. Therefore a direct method of detecting HIV is necessary. Identification by PCR is highly sensitive and specific. Detection of HIV can be achieved within the first 48 hours after birth in 38 of infected children, and within the first 2 weeks in 93 of children (Dunn 1995). Once a positive HIV PCR is found, a second independent blood sample should soon be taken for repeat PCR analysis. As diverse subtypes of HIV exist, it is advised to test paired samples from mother and infant by HIV DNA PCR. If the mothers virus is not amplified by the primer set used, then another set or another test can be used to avoid a false negative result in the infant. Cord blood is not useful for the diagnosis because maternal cells may be present and may cause a false positive...

Distribution of GSK3 in Neurons

Ground-breaking immunohistochemical studies showed that GSK-3 is mainly present in neurons, and interestingly it was found in growing axons 11 . However, in mature tissue it appears that GSK-3 becomes restricted to the gray matter. These studies showed that the developmental profiles of GSK-3 a and GSK-3 p expression are different and in particular, that the p isoform is downregulated after birth.

Clinical Manifestations

HHT is characterized by skin, mucosal membrane, and visceral telangiectasias, recurrent epistaxis, and visceral hemorrhages. The recurrent epistaxis is usually the first and most common sign of the disease. The lesions seen on physical exam are small, dark red telangiectases, with ill-defined borders and stellate appearance, occurring most commonly on the face, lips, tongue, palms, and fingers (Fig. 6). The telangiectasias seen on the skin and mucous membranes actually represent small AVMs, which explains their propensity to bleed. Visceral AVMs are found mostly in the lungs, central nervous system (CNS), upper gastrointestinal tract, and liver. The number and location of telangiectasias and AVMs vary widely between individuals and within the same family. The external, visible signs (telangiectasias and frequent nose bleeds) often do not manifest until the second or third decade of life. Internal AVMs in the brain, spinal cord, and lungs are thought to be largely congenital lesions...

Postmortem Organ Weights

Current recommendations for evaluation of all stillbirths and infants dying within 24 hours after birth (neonatal deaths) include gross and microscopic autopsy of the fetus and the placenta, postmortem photography and radiography, analysis of bacterial cultures, karyotyping of the fetal tissues, and saving tissue for DNA studies when indicated

Molecular Basis Of Wand Sl Phenotypes

Numerous different W and Sl mutant mice have been studied, and many of the underlying mutations have now been characterized at the molecular level (6). W, the first dominant white spotting mutant described (in the early 1900s) (2), is now known to represent a null mutation affecting c-kit mRNA splicing such that the c-kit polypeptide lacks a transmembrane domain, is not expressed at the cell surface, and lacks kinase activity (4,6). Homozygous animals are severely affected with respect to hematopoiesis, melanogenesis, and gametogenesis and die within a week after birth (1,2). Heterozygotes have some white spotting and coat color dilution but otherwise are relatively normal, and fertile. Therefore the W locus is semidominant. The W (W-viable) mutation represents a Thr660 Met change in the first kinase homology region and confers reduced kinase activity (4,6). Homozygous (WW) animals are affected almost as severely as W W animals, and most die within 3 wk after birth (1,2)....

Mutations of the a globin genes causing a thalassemia

Gene deletion, since both still have two functioning a genes. Compound heterozygotes with only one a gene (- -a) show more severe red cell abnormalities, including the presence of HbH, and a clinical course that varies from quite mild to fairly severe anaemia. Homozygotes for the double gene deletion (- -) are severely anemic in utero, developing hydrops fetalis and usually dying shortly before or immediately after birth.

Expression Of Scf And cKit mRNAs

Expression of SCF and c-kit mRNAs in tissues of the mouse during embryogenesis and after birth has been thoroughly studied by in situ hybridization (38-41). A number of important results emerged from these studies 4. For many of the tissues discussed, contiguous expression of SCF and c-kit mRNAs continued to be apparent by in situ hybridization after birth and into adulthood. Such tissues include hematopoietic tissues (bone marrow and spleen), the skin and hair follicles, the gonads, the gastrointestinal tract, and the CNS.

Development of Lewis antigens

Lewis antigens start to appear on red cells soon after birth 740 . Lea develops first red cells of infants with an Le gene generally become Le(a+) during the first few months of life. In white people, at 3 months of age 80 of infants are Le(a+), this number dropping to the adult level of 20 by 2 years 741-743 . During this period the red cell phenotype Le(a+b+) is not uncommon 743,744 . By 6 years of age the proportion of Le(b+) reaches the adult level 743 .

Transmission dynamics

Their description will require knowledge of a number of parameters annual human birthrate in area of study duration of presence of maternal antibodies after birth age-related susceptibility and prevalence of specific antibodies, specified by G and P type age-related incidence of rotavirus infections transmission effectiveness reduction of susceptibility in non-primary infections and significance of animal reservoirs (Desselberger & Estes 2000). On the other hand, modern techniques of phylogenetic analysis of cognate sequences of an appropriate sample will allow characterization of some of the factors determining the spread of rotaviruses (Page & Holmes 1998, E. Holmes, personal communication). Much more work will have to be done to be able to establish an accurate model of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of rotaviruses.

Dihydrochelirubine 12monooxygenase

Species in which activity has been found in liver microsomes include bandicoot, beef, bettong, kangaroo, man, monkey, mouse, pig, possum, quokka, rat, shrew, tree shrew, rainbow trout, Boophilus, Cunninghamella and Nephila A1218, A1795, A1997, A2420, A3460, B145, D532, E60, J639 . In mammalia the reaction requires three factors for maximal activity cytochrome P450 or P448, a reductase and a lipid component A627, A735 . Cumene hydroperoxide can act as the oxidant A335 . The activity of aniline-4-hydroxylase is not detectable in rat before birth. After birth, activity increases 30-fold to a maximum at weaning, and then declines until at six months it has decreased by 90 per cent A71 . At birth, the activity is five times greater in female than in male rats, with higher activity at 10 than at five weeks age. The development pattern only follows the activity of P450 in broad outline A736 . Rabbit intestinal and liver microsomal enzyme activity increases two- to four-fold from nine days...

Developmental changes in specific neurotransmitter systems

Glutamate The amino acid glutamate and the closely related compound aspartate are generally considered to be the transmitters employed by pyramidal neurons projecting to both cortical and subcortical locations (Streit, 1984). The time course for the maturation of various glutamatergic pathways is probably different. For example, the corticocortical projections originating in the visual cortex of rat brain attain adult levels of glutamate before their corticostriatal counterparts projecting to the caudate nucleus (Johnston, 1988). Interestingly, two days after birth, the level of the glutamate reuptake mechanism is 30 of the levels that are eventually seen at P15. In the visual cortex and in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the reuptake mechanism attains adult levels by P15 and P20, respectively (Kvale, Fosse, and Fonnum, 1983). High-affinity glutamate receptors also continue to change postnatally. Between P10 and P15, glutamate receptor binding activity increases by 30 and is 10 times...

Mammalian reproduction

Reproduction is pivotal to the continuation of life. From an evolutionary standpoint, there is no single factor that has more impact on the development of species. The impetus to reproduce shapes morphology, physiology, life history, and behavior of all animals, mammals included. From the egg-laying platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) to the wildebeests (genus Connochaetes) that have neonates that can run mere seconds after birth, a wide variety of strategies have evolved to successfully bear offspring in a multitude of environments.

Transgenic Technology

Blastocyst, whether unhatched or hatched. Five to 15 ES cells are injected into each blastocyst, and nine to 15 of the microinjected blastocysts are transferred to the uterus of a pseudopregnant recipient. Pups are born approximately 18 days from transfer. Detection of chimerism is possible as early as 3 days later but is not confirmed and quantified until hair grows in, 5 to 7 days after birth. Only male chimeras, where 50 of the coat color is from the ES contribution, are selected for testing germ line transmission of the induced mutation. The male chimeras are test mated with C57BL 6 females. The resulting black offspring are derived only from a host embryo background, whereas black agouti offspring are derived from the ES cell contribution, due to coat color genetics of all the ES 129 substrains. These black agouti pups are further tested, using tail or ear biopsies, to determine whether the wild type or the targeted allele is transmitted. Pups determined to be heterozygous (+ -)...

Molecular Biology Of Pheromone Reception

In mice, pheromones are detected by two anatomically distinct olfactory systems the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal (or accessory olfactory) system. The olfactory neurons express a repertoire of olfactory receptors (ORs), which is responsible for detecting volatile odorants and pheromones. The vomeronasal sensory epithelium in the VNO can be divided into apical and basal layers, which express V1R- and V2R-type receptors, respectively (Berghard and Buck, 1996 Dulac and Axel, 1995 Herrada and Dulac, 1997 Matsunami and Buck, 1997 Ryba and Tirindelli, 1997 Tirindelli et al., 1998) (Fig. 6.1). V1Rs and V2Rs begin to be expressed after birth (Dulac and Axel, 1995), whereas ORs

Antiretroviral agents in pregnancy

In perinatal prevention, nevirapine was employed successfully, particularly in combination with AZT. Perinatal single and two-dose prophylaxis has resulted in the development of drug resistance (Jackson 2000). Toxic liver injury has been described, particularly in the first 18 weeks of longer treatment regimens, especially if the CD4 cell count is more than 250 mm3. Therefore frequent controls of efficacy and potential side effects are vital. If a mother gives birth less than two hours following nevirapine administration, or has not received any prior nevirapine at all, the newborn should receive a dose of nevirapine immediately after birth and a further dose after 48-72 hours (Stringer 2003). Because of embryonic toxicity in the rhesus monkey and also in humans, efavirenz is not used during the first trimester of pregnancy and only after the second in cases without an alternative treatment option and if reliable contraception is practiced after delivery. (CDC 2005).

Protection Against Pathogenic Micro Organisms

After birth, the body of the baby is exposed to numerous germs. The skin barrier not only protects mechanically against invading micro-organisms, but also through the slightly acidic milieu of the hydrolipidic film on the surface of the skin. The surface of the skin is physiologically populated by specific germs (saprophytes), which are not pathogens but rather a vital microbial defense system on the skin's surface. For optimal living conditions, the saprophytes require an acidic milieu. Directly after birth, however, alkaline values prevail on the surface of the body of the newborn. It can be assumed that these alkaline values result from the vernix caseosa residue. Neither weight at birth nor gestation age seem to have an influence on the pH value. Within the first 24 hours after birth, the pH value drops noticeably. In the first month of life, the pH value then stabilizes at a slightly acidic range (slightly below a pH value of 6) 14 .

Factors Pre Disposing to Neonatal Infection

The majority of neonatal IgG is maternally derived and is mainly transferred actively across the placenta from the mother to the foetus after 32 weeks gestation. There is little maternal IgG2 transferred and there is a relatively slow onset of neonatal immunoglobulin synthesis. Thus preterm infants miss out on maternal IgG transfer and will therefore be relatively hypogammaglobulinaemic compared to their term counterparts. After birth maternal IgG decays and there may be a nadir from 2-4 months of age until neonatal intrinsic IgG production has commenced. However, neither preterm nor term infants are able to produce any anti polysaccharide antibody of the IgG2 subclass, thus rendering them particularly susceptible to infection with encapsulated bacteria.

Mountain gazelle

Males attend to one or more females and their young generally in groups of 3-8. Estrous occurs every 18 days and lasts 12-24 hours, repeating until the female becomes pregnant. Males and females reproduce with various partners. Females usually give birth to one baby per season (and, on average, 11 in her lifetime). The usual mating season is in early winter (October to November), although mating also occurs in the spring (April to mid-May) and at other times when food is plentiful. The gestation period is about 180 days. Newborns generally weigh about 11-12 of the mother's weight. Mothers give birth away from the herd. The newborn can stand shortly after birth, and spends the first few weeks nursing. They begin to take solid food when they are 3-6 weeks old, but suckling may last up to three months. Males do not contribute to the care of the young. At this time, mother and young will join a maternity herd. Female young will remain with the mother, but male young will leave...

Milk composition

Picture And Information Mammals

In order for the secretion of colostral immunoglobins to be effective, the neonatal gut needs to remain permeable to their absorption and minimize any upper-tract digestion of these proteins. The time the mammalian intestine remains permeable to the intact immunoglobins varies between species 24-36 hours after birth in the case of ungulates 16-20 days in mice and rats eight days in mink and 100-200 days in large marsupials. The marsupial's prolonged absorption capabilities relate to the time the young reside in the mother's pouch.

Hispid cotton rat

Size varies from one to 15, with animals from northern populations having larger litters. Neonates are well developed at birth their eyes open within 36 hours after birth and are weaned in 10-15 days. Males reach reproduction maturity in two or three months females reach it earlier, even in 10 days and in an average of 30-40 days. Females normally produce several litters per year.


The physiological relevance of the high level of SULT1A3 in fetal liver is unclear. It is reasonable to propose that the expression of SULT1A3 in fetal liver has a protective function against the biological activity of catecholamines. The timing of the developmental switch from liver to gastrointestinal tract as the major site of SULT1A3 expression is not known, however. The major functions of gastrointestinal SULT1A3 in the adult are likely protection against the potentially toxic effects of ingested catecholamines in the diet and production of the large amounts of dopamine sulfate present in the circulation. Humans (and presumably other higher primates) have evolved a specific SULT for this purpose, with a high degree of selectivity towards catecholamines (Dajani et al., 1998). It is likely that a similar protective function would be also required by the newborn infant, perhaps not immediately after birth (assuming that breast milk is catecholamine poor), but certainly in infancy...

Whitetailed mouse

Have an unusual method of raising young soon after birth, the young attach themselves to their mother's mammae and remain attached for about three weeks. The female drags them about during this time. They continue to suckle intermittently for another 2-3 weeks. The survival rate of young is high for rodents, as the mother can provide direct protection for her young. Sexual maturity is reached at about five months of age and litters can be produced as often as every 36 days. Mean litter size is 2.9 young. In captivity, they may live as long as six years lifespan in the wild is unknown.

Allergiesan Overview

It is clear that there is a hereditary trait that predisposes to the formation of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and development of allergic disease (27). This genetic predisposition, known as atopy, affects arguably as many as 30-50 of the world population (2,25,27). Although the immunopathological mechanisms in established allergic diseases are well characterized, it is poorly understood how and why atopy leads or does not lead to allergic sensitization and why only some sensitized individuals develop symptomatic allergic disease (30). Intriguingly, the immune responses to common environmental allergens are initially dominated by Th2 cells in all newborn infants but these responses are not suppressed in atopic infants during the first year of life (31,32). This is thought to be due to defects associated with atopy, for example, impaired production of IFN-g, which compromise the normal maturation of Th2 antagonistic Th1 responses. The major driving force for the Th1 maturation is...

Mantled guereza

Births are typically single and occur year-round. Young infants are commonly passed around among females other than the mother, and also carried by them, even quite soon after birth. This species has been little studied in captivity, so basic reproductive features such as the gestation period remain unknown.


Developmental changes in the density of NA -and NPY-containing nerve fibers supplying the basilar artery of the young rat do not proceed in synchrony, even though these substances are coexpressed increased expression of NA occurs between 4 and 6 weeks, while increased expression of NPY occurs later, at 6-8 weeks (147). Vascular developmental innervation patterns vary considerably with the location and species. For example, in guinea pig mesenteric and carotid arteries there are large increases in innervation by neuropeptide-containing nerves, particularly CGRP, which occur before an increase in the density of NA-containing nerves, at 4 weeks after birth, while in renal and femoral arteries noradrenergic nerve density reaches a peak before peptide-containing nerve plexuses (148).

Plp1 And Pmp22

Both PLP1 and PMP22 encode major myelin proteins. Each appears to play an important role in the development and maintenance of myelin, although the exact functions of these proteins remain elusive (Table 1). PLP1 is primarily expressed in oligodendrocytes that form myelin in the CNS, whereas PMP22 is predominantly expressed in the Schwann cells that produce myelin in the PNS. PLP1 spans an approx 17-kb genomic interval on chromosome Xq22.2 and is composed of seven coding exons. PLP1 contains 276 amino acids, of which 35 residues encoded in the latter half of exon 3 are alternatively spliced out in DM20 (16). DM20 is predominantly expressed in oligodendrocyte precursors before the initiation of myelin production, whereas major PLP1 expression occurs after birth in conjunction with myelin maturation.

Pachyramphus aglaiae

Behavior and reproduction Rose-throated becards choose a single mate and lay two to six eggs once each year. Female do most of the nest building. The nest is round and hangs from a tree branch. Females incubate the eggs for just over two weeks. Both parents feed the young, which leave the nest around three weeks after birth.

Pitangus sulphuratus

Behavior and reproduction Great kiskadees are aggressive and will chase larger birds out of their territory. These are large, active, noisy birds with a loud, harsh, call that sounds like their name. They mate with a single partner and build round nests on trees or utility poles. The female lays two to five eggs, two or three times a year. The young hatch in about two weeks and are fed by both parents before they fledge, grow feathers, and leave the nest about three weeks after birth.


Vascular disease and type 2 diabetes in later life (38-40). Babies who are thin at birth, having a low ponderal index, lack muscle, a deficiency which will persist as the critical period for muscle growth is 30 weeks in utero and there is little cell replication after birth (44). If they develop a high body mass index in childhood, they may have a disproportionately high fat mass. This may be associated with the development of insulin resistance, as children and adults who had low birth weight but are currently heavy are insulin resistant (19,45), and the adults have high rates of the insulin resistance syndrome (46,47).

B V2Rtype receptors

To determine whether this is correct, further studies were performed to identify which V2R(s) is expressed in vomeronasal neurons that recognize ESP1. Vomeronasal neurons were double-labeled with an anti-c-Fos antibody and an in situ RNA probe for V2Rs. Of 12 different RNA probes, 1 of them, V2Rp, which was designed to hybridize with 5 highly homologous V2Rp genes, clearly recognized c-Fos-positive neurons responding to ESP1 (Kimoto et al., 2005). In contrast, none of other probes overlapped with c-Fos. Further studies using specific probes to discriminate the five V2Rp revealed that V2Rp5 was expressed in all of the c-Fos-induced neurons (Haga et al., 2007). The results provide evidence that single V2Rs are responsible for the detection of peptide pheromones, which results in a narrow ligand spectrum for individual vomeronasal sensory neurons. V2Rp5, which recognizes male-specific ESP1, however, is expressed in both male and female mice after birth, suggesting that the peptide...

Guinea pig

The mating system is polygynous and involves males mating with more than one female. Gestation averages 62 days for wild species and is shorter in the domestic guinea pig. Guinea pigs breed continuously and experience postpartum estrus. Minimum age for first reproduction in females is 30 days. Young are precocial and weaned at an early age. Offspring have been observed eating solid food two to three days after birth. The social organization of guinea pig populations changes with increases in number of individuals. There is a stronger linear dominance hierarchy when populations are low, and when populations are larger, individuals form subgroups of a few males and females. In the small subgroups dominant males appear to be highly successful at monopolizing breeding of females in estrus.

Prospective Antigens

During the late fetal period and early after birth, they are generally not detectable after 2 yr age (88). Additionally, 3'-isoLM1 is expressed for the most part on the edge of invasive GBM as well as on remote tumor cells that have infiltrated the brain parenchyma (89). Thus, effective targeting of these cells may possibly help eliminate the most important source of recurrence. However, despite the production of specific IgM MAbs (88), no anti-3'-isoLM1 or 3',6'-isoLD1 MAb of the IgG class is available at this time.


Bifidobacteria colonize the human intestinal tract during or soon after birth and in breast-fed infants they eventually dominate the microbiota (85). The numerical dominance of bifidobacteria is induced by bifidogenic components in breast milk, including oligosaccharides (85,86). Indeed, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the original prebiotics. The concentration of oligosaccharides found in human milk (5 to 10 g L) is about 100 times that found in cow's milk (0.03 to 0.06 g L). HMOs are complex with more than 130 identified structures (87). Each individual oligosaccharide is based on a variable


Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus has been found naturally infecting hamsters, as the most frequent, and less frequently, mice and guinea pigs. Furthermore, it is zoonotic and has the capability of infecting man. In a few unlucky cases, this may lead to meningitis. Most cases have been associated with pet hamsters.159,160,161 Infection may be persisting, in mice especially, if these are infected intrautero or within the first 7 days after birth. It has been widely used as experimental agent for studying viral immunology. It spreads slowly in the colony and prevalences seldom reach more than 10 , although the prevalence may be higher among animals in the lower racks.162 Vertical spread from mother to foster is the principal way of infection.163 Natural infections in mice and hamsters are normally silent, while more severe symptoms may be observed after infection with specific strains in guinea pigs.164 Serology is the principal method for routine monitoring.