Aerobic Endurance Ebook
It is also likely that the age-related increase in obesity is in some way related to deficits in energy expenditure. This topic has been carefully reviewed (72), and the relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and age appears to be curvilinear if sufficient numbers of older individuals are included. While three-fourths of this decline in RMR can be accounted for by decrements in FFM, one-fourth remains unexplained. Poehlman has suggested that this decline in RMR may be related to inactivity and has demonstrated normalization in older men after endurance training (73). Others have not been able to demonstrate an endurance training-related improvement in RMR in older subjects (74). While the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) may decline with age (75), this may be more related to inactivity than to age itself (72). Furthermore, variability in TEF does not predict subsequent weight gain (76).
Nonetheless, aerobic exercise may prevent the common age-related decline in RMR (10). Endurance-trained, middle-aged and older women presented a 10 higher RMR than sedentary women, when RMR was adjusted for body composition. Although descriptive in nature, these data suggest that exercise may help prevent the age-related weight gain seen in sedentary women, and that the protective mechanism may be an altered RMR.
Prevention of post-endurance exercise infections Athletes often use vitamin C supplements to prevent infections, as strenuous training and physiological stress appears to increase the body's need for vitamin C to a level above the usual RDI (Schwenk & Costley 2002). Additionally, the risk of infection after an intense aerobic training session or competition (such as a marathon) is increased (Jeurissen et al 2003).
In terms of available evidence, the best treatment for elderly obese patients is exercise. Cardio-respiratory fitness is an important determinant of health status in the elderly and can be improved by exercise. The majority of elderly women actually achieve the currently recommended levels of exercise during activities of daily living, including housework. However, this level of activity does not appear to be protective against obesity and its consequences. There is now evidence from a large number of studies that exercise in the elderly is beneficial in terms of glucose tolerance, cardiac and respiratory function, improved function and quality of life. Patients have traditionally been instructed that aerobic exercise is most beneficial. Meaningful amounts of aerobic exercise may not be achievable in many with functional limitation and severe obesity. Furthermore, there is often a worsening of symptoms and well-being in the short term, and this may decrease adherence to programs of...
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