Treatment of Obesity

In America there are fewer cures for obesity undertaken than abroad because there are fewer obese people here. This statement was made in 1917, but time and the tides have now produced an epidemic of obesity in America (204). The clinical approach to treatment of obesity long antedates the Scientific Era. From the time of Hippocrates (205) and Galen (206) in the prescientific era, diet and exercise were an integral part of the therapeutic regimen for obese patients. Hippocrates, the ''Father of...

Infant Feeding And Obesity

A recent study of 15,000 children aged 9-14 years found that in those who had been only or mostly fed breast milk, the odds ratio for being overweight was 0.78 (95 CI 0.66-0.91) compared with children who had been only or mostly fed infant formula (31). This apparent protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity persisted after adjustment for energy intake, physical activity, mother's body mass index, and other variables. The same association has not been found consistently in younger...

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Comments on corpulency lineaments of leanness mems on diet and dietetics. London John Ebers & Co., 1829. Malpighi M. Opera Omnia. Londini R. Scott, 1686. Hooke R. Micrographia or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses with observations and inquiries thereupon. London J. Martyn & J. Allestry, 1665-1667. 72. Van Leeuwenhoek A. The Select Works of Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Containing His Microscopical Discoveries in Many of the Works of Nature....

Janet Franklin BMed SciHons MNutr Diet

Metabolism and Obesity Services, Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Susan K. Fried, Ph.D. Professor, Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, and Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Barbara C. Hansen, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Physiology, and Director, Obesity and Diabetes Research Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Hans...

Age Related Changes in Fat Distribution

It has been well demonstrated that many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity are strongly and independently related to a central distribution of adiposity (29-34). However, what is less well recognized is that aging is associated with an increasingly more central distribution of adiposity in both men and women (7,35-38). At any given level of adiposity, more fat will be centrally distributed in older individuals. Of interest, a cross-sectional study found no age-related change...

Social Economic and Cultural Determinants of the Prevalence of Obesity

Many factors affect energy balance and determine obesity. The major determinants can be grouped into three groups (25) 1. Biological influences and unalterable factors (e.g., age, sex, hormonal factors, and genetics). 2. Behavioural influences (which are the result of complex psychological factors, including habits, emotions, attitudes, beliefs, and cognitions developed through a background of learning history). 3. Environmental influences (physical, economic, and sociocultural environment)....

Medicine And Obesity From Recorded History To Ad 1500 Prescientific Medicine

Medical traditions have developed in all cultures. Several of these are described below, along with evidence that obesity was present. Evidence for obesity has been identified in all of these medical traditions and geographic regions, suggesting that independent of diet, the potential to store nutrients as fat was selected for by evolution at an early period in human development. Medical traditions are an integral part of all societies. Many factors influence the cultural sophistica- Figure 2...

Recommendations

Detection in the context of obesity may be very difficult. The combined effects of the primary genes may be characterized as oligogenic (few genes each with a large enough effect), and the aggregate effects of the secondary obesity genes may be regarded as polygenic (many genes, each with a small effect). Regardless of the terminology, it is commonly recognized that human obesity involves multiple genes, some with large and some with small effects. While the model-fitting approaches in genetic...

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New England Medical Center Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. W. H. M. Saris, M.D., Ph.D. Scientific Director, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands Yves Schutz, Ph.D. Lecturer, Institute of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Robert S. Schwartz, M.D. Goodstein Professor of Medicine Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. Jacob C. Seidell, Ph.D....

History Definitions And Prevalence

Historical Framework for the Development of Ideas About Obesity George A. Bray 2. Evaluation of Total and Regional Adiposity Steven B. Heymsfield, Richard N. Baumgartner, David B. Allison, Wei Shen, ZiMian Wang, and Robert Ross 3. Ethnic and Geographic Influences on Body Composition Paul Deurenberg and Mabel Deurenberg-Yap 4. Prevalence of Obesity in Adults The Global Epidemic Jacob C. Seidell and Aila M. Rissanen 5. Fetal Origins of Obesity David J. P. Barker 6. Pediatric Overweight An...