Reported Costs Of Obesity

There are a large number of obesity cost or burden of illness studies. Table 1 gives a summary of those recently published from a variety of different countries and continents. The range of direct costs reported is between US 77 million for New Zealand (14), a country in which the prevalence of obesity is now 19 , and US 70 billion in the United States (15), where the prevalence of obesity is some 25 of the adult population. Recently it has been suggested that the direct cost of obesity in...

Geneenvironment And Genegene Interactions

Genotype-environment interaction (G x E) arises when the response of a phenotype (e.g., fat mass) to environmental changes (e.g., dietary restriction) depends on the genotype of the individual. Although it is well known that there are interindividual differences in the responses to various dietary interventions, whether in terms of serum cholesterol changes to high-fat diet (184) or in terms of body weight gains following chronic overfeeding (185), very few attempts have been made to test...

Mesopotamian Medicine

The Tigris and Euphrates River basin was the land of healers and astrologers. Cuneiform writing, libraries, sanitation, and medical knowledge are evident by 3600 BC. Of the 30,000 clay tablets with cuneiform writing that were recovered in the library at Ninevah from ca 2000 BC, 800 are related to medical matters. The medical armamentarium of Sumerian physicians consisted of more than 120 minerals and 250 herbs including cannabis, mustard, mandragora, belladonna, and henbane (45). A terracotta...

Requirements For Cost Of Obesity Studies

From the above discussion it can be seen that there are a number of prerequisites before a meaningful cost of obesity study can be performed. There needs to be a good study of the prevalence of obesity (defined using the WHO's suggested BMI cut points). In addition, a standard group of obesity-associated disorders should be included and it is optimal if there are known local RRs of these disorders from previous studies. Such estimates of RR will account for details of ethnic variation that may...

Obesityrelated Disease Interactions Between Fetal Growth And Childhood Body Mass

Studies of the fetal and infant origins of obesity are part of a wider field of research on the early origins of adult diseases (33) It is now known that people who had low birth weight, or who were thin or stunted at birth, are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (34-40). These diseases, especially type 2 diabetes, are associated with obesity (41). Their association with small body size at birth has led to the conclusion that they originate in...

Stone Age Obesity

Table 1 is a list of several artifacts from the paleolithic stone age that depict obesity. These artifacts were found across Europe from southwestern France to Russia north of the Black Sea. The location in which they were found and their appearance is shown in Figure 1. They were produced during a fairly narrow time frame in the early Upper Paleolithic period (Upper Perigordian or Gravettian) some 23,000-25,000 years ago (40). They Table 1 Paleolithic Venus Figurines with Prominent Obesity...

Component Reference Methods

Body composition methods vary in several characteristics including cost, safety, technical complexity, port ability, accuracy, reproducibility, and requirement for subject participation. In the section that follows we organize methods for convenience into two main groups, ''reference'' methods that are often applied in small-scale studies requiring high accuracy and repro-ducibility, and ''field methods that require reference method calibration and that are appropriate for use in...

Menopause and Obesity in Women

There are relatively few data on changes in adiposity and fat distribution associated with menopause in women. This is an important issue because of the relationships that have been noted between obesity and cardiovascular disease (5), and obesity and certain cancers (56,57) in postmenopausal women. As noted above, body weight reaches its maximum in women very near the time of menopause, and there is an increase in relative adiposity for any given weight or BMI. While some studies find that the...

Indirect Costs

Reduced quality of life experienced because of obesity. This will require both quality-of-life measures in individuals and populations and an estimate of what is the usual cost of a life-year. In addition, the degree of obesity will have an effect. While there are suppositions and estimations with the other type of economic costs, such factors are probably greater and more variable for intangible costs. There are also other ways of looking at the economic costs of obesity. These include years...

Identification And Definition

Adiposity, or the amount of body fat measured directly or indirectly, is used to determine overweight status. There are three key issues regarding the identification of overweight children (1) whether the same measures of adiposity should be used for clinical and research purposes (2) whether indirect measures of adiposity are adequate for screening purposes and (3) the recommended cutoff points for defining overweight. From the point of view of those in epidemiology and public health, measures...

Info

BMI body mass index BF deuterium, body fat from deuterium oxide dilution BF BMI body fat predicted from body mass index using a sex-and age-specific Caucasian prediction formula (19) BF imp body fat predicted from bioelectrical impedance (20) BF skfd body fat predicted from skinfolds (21). BMI body mass index BF deuterium, body fat from deuterium oxide dilution BF BMI body fat predicted from body mass index using a sex-and age-specific Caucasian prediction formula (19) BF imp body fat predicted...

Indian Medicine

The fourth great medical tradition is that of Indian medicine (53). In the sacred medical texts of Ayurvedic medicine, sin was viewed as the cause of disease, and medical knowledge was closely interwoven with religion and magic. The Caraka Samhita was the first document on Indian medicine, and the Susruta Samhita was the second great medical Sanskrit text. The Caraka Samhita described 20 sharp and 101 blunt instruments as well as an operating table. At least 500 drugs are listed along with 700...

Classification Of Obesity And Fat Distribution

The epidemiology of obesity has for many years been difficult to study because many countries had their own specific criteria for the classification of different degrees overweight. Gradually during the 1990s, however, the body mass index (BMI) (weight height2) became a universally accepted measure of the degree of overweight and now identical cutoff points are recommended. This most recent classification of overweight in adults by the World Health Organization is the following (1)

Introduction

Quantifying the amount and distribution of adipose tissue and its related components is integral to the study and treatment of human obesity. Body composition research is a field devoted specifically to the development and extension of methods for in vivo quantification of adipose tissue and other biochemical and anatomical components of the body. This review focuses on methods of estimating body composition components in the context of evaluating human obesity and its associated risks. The...

Treatment of Obesity

In America there are fewer cures for obesity undertaken than abroad because there are fewer obese people here. This statement was made in 1917, but time and the tides have now produced an epidemic of obesity in America (204). The clinical approach to treatment of obesity long antedates the Scientific Era. From the time of Hippocrates (205) and Galen (206) in the prescientific era, diet and exercise were an integral part of the therapeutic regimen for obese patients. Hippocrates, the ''Father of...

Infant Feeding And Obesity

A recent study of 15,000 children aged 9-14 years found that in those who had been only or mostly fed breast milk, the odds ratio for being overweight was 0.78 (95 CI 0.66-0.91) compared with children who had been only or mostly fed infant formula (31). This apparent protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity persisted after adjustment for energy intake, physical activity, mother's body mass index, and other variables. The same association has not been found consistently in younger...

Janet Franklin BMed SciHons MNutr Diet

Metabolism and Obesity Services, Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Susan K. Fried, Ph.D. Professor, Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, and Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Barbara C. Hansen, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Physiology, and Director, Obesity and Diabetes Research Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Hans...

Age Related Changes in Fat Distribution

It has been well demonstrated that many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity are strongly and independently related to a central distribution of adiposity (29-34). However, what is less well recognized is that aging is associated with an increasingly more central distribution of adiposity in both men and women (7,35-38). At any given level of adiposity, more fat will be centrally distributed in older individuals. Of interest, a cross-sectional study found no age-related change...

Social Economic and Cultural Determinants of the Prevalence of Obesity

Many factors affect energy balance and determine obesity. The major determinants can be grouped into three groups (25) 1. Biological influences and unalterable factors (e.g., age, sex, hormonal factors, and genetics). 2. Behavioural influences (which are the result of complex psychological factors, including habits, emotions, attitudes, beliefs, and cognitions developed through a background of learning history). 3. Environmental influences (physical, economic, and sociocultural environment)....

Medicine And Obesity From Recorded History To Ad 1500 Prescientific Medicine

Medical traditions have developed in all cultures. Several of these are described below, along with evidence that obesity was present. Evidence for obesity has been identified in all of these medical traditions and geographic regions, suggesting that independent of diet, the potential to store nutrients as fat was selected for by evolution at an early period in human development. Medical traditions are an integral part of all societies. Many factors influence the cultural sophistica- Figure 2...

Recommendations

Detection in the context of obesity may be very difficult. The combined effects of the primary genes may be characterized as oligogenic (few genes each with a large enough effect), and the aggregate effects of the secondary obesity genes may be regarded as polygenic (many genes, each with a small effect). Regardless of the terminology, it is commonly recognized that human obesity involves multiple genes, some with large and some with small effects. While the model-fitting approaches in genetic...

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New England Medical Center Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. W. H. M. Saris, M.D., Ph.D. Scientific Director, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands Yves Schutz, Ph.D. Lecturer, Institute of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Robert S. Schwartz, M.D. Goodstein Professor of Medicine Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. Jacob C. Seidell, Ph.D....

History Definitions And Prevalence

Historical Framework for the Development of Ideas About Obesity George A. Bray 2. Evaluation of Total and Regional Adiposity Steven B. Heymsfield, Richard N. Baumgartner, David B. Allison, Wei Shen, ZiMian Wang, and Robert Ross 3. Ethnic and Geographic Influences on Body Composition Paul Deurenberg and Mabel Deurenberg-Yap 4. Prevalence of Obesity in Adults The Global Epidemic Jacob C. Seidell and Aila M. Rissanen 5. Fetal Origins of Obesity David J. P. Barker 6. Pediatric Overweight An...