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The 3 Week Diet Review

The 3 Week Diet Review

Holistic Hormone Balance Review

Holistic Hormone Balance Review

Human Anatomy and Physiology Premium Course Review

Human Anatomy and Physiology Premium Course Review

Fast Tonsil Stones Cure Review

Fast Tonsil Stones Cure Review

Legendary Enlargement - Make Her Beg for More

Legendary Enlargement - Make Her Beg for More

Bearded Dragon Secret Manual Review

Bearded Dragon Secret Manual Review

Booty Type Training Program Review

Booty Type Training Program Review

Make-up For Beginners Review

Make-up For Beginners Review

Reversing The Gray Does Exactly What It Says

Reversing The Gray Does Exactly What It Says

Grow Taller 4 Idiots Review

Grow Taller 4 Idiots Review

Alcohol Free Forever Review

Alcohol Free Forever Review

How To Give Up Alcohol Ebook Review

How To Give Up Alcohol Ebook Review

Articles

Health Policy and Health Related Interest Groups

Health services and secondary provider organizations, as discussed in the previous section, are not the only entities with health policy concerns and interests. A wide variety of health-related interest groups, including some that are consumer based or that are organized around individual health practitioner memberships, exist because of the collective interests of their individual or organizational members in health policymaking and the resulting health policies. As will be discussed more...

Left Inferior Quadrantanopia

The visual system is served by the optic nerve, which is a special somatic afferent nerve. II. THE VISUAL PATHWAY Figure 17-1 includes the following structures. A. Ganglion cells of the retina form the optic nerve cranial nerve CN II . They project from the nasal hemiretina to the contralateral lateral geniculate body and from the temporal hemiretina to the ipsilateral lateral geniculate body. Figure 17-1. The visual pathway from the retina to the visual cortex showing visual...

Internal Capsule Function

The thalamus is the largest division of the diencephalon. It plays an important role in the integration of the sensory and motor systems. II. MAJOR THALAMIC NUCLEI AND THEIR CONNECTIONS Figure 16-1 A. The anterior nucleus receives hypothalamic input from the mamillary nucleus through the mamillothalamic tract. It projects to the cingulate gyrus and is part of the Papez circuit of emotion of the limbic system. B. The mediodorsal dorsomedial nucleus is reciprocally connected to...

Crosssection Through The Medulla Figure

The hypoglossal nucleus of CN XII 2. The medial lemniscus, which contains crossed fibers from the gracile and cuneate nuclei 3. The pyramid corticospinal tracts Lateral geniculate body Medial geniculate body Crus cerebri Superior cerebellar peduncle Middle cerebellar peduncle Inferior cerebellar peduncle Gracile tubercle Cuneate fasciculus Gracile fasciculus Figure 9-1. The dorsal surface of the brain stem. The three cerebellar peduncles have been removed to expose the rhomboid fossa. The...

Policy Formulation Development Of Legislation

As noted in the previous chapter, the formulation phase of health policymaking includes two distinct and sequentially related parts agenda setting and legislation development. This chapter, which focuses on the development of legislation, is a companion to the previous chapter in which the agenda-setting aspect of policy formulation was the focus. Policy formulation can be fully appreciated only through the combination of the various activities associated with agenda setting and legislation...

Muscles Of The Thoracic Wall

Several muscles of the thoracic wall, including the most superficial ones that create some of the contours of the thoracic wall, are muscles that act on the upper extremity. Some of these muscles form important surface landmarks on the thorax, and others have relationships to vessels that communicate with the thorax. In addition to moving the upper extremity, some of these muscles also can play a role in movement of the thoracic wall and participate in respiration. The pectoralis major muscle...

Performing A Manual Differential And Assessing Red Blood Cell Morphology

When blood samples are evaluated by the use of automated hematology analyzers, this analysis includes automated differentials. Specific criteria pertaining to normal, abnormal, and critical values have been programmed into the analyzers by the institution, and if the differentials do not meet these criteria, verification is necessary. This is done by performing manual differentials and further evaluating the peripheral smear. First, a differential white blood cell WBC count is performed to...

What Does A Vaginal Cyst Look Like

The vagina extends from the cervix to the vestibule. It is the longest part of the birth canal. The degree to which it can distend during childbirth is limited by the ischial spines and sacrospinous ligaments. It forms a recess around the cervix called the fornix. The fornix is divided into three regions 1. The anterior fornix is located anterior to the cervix. It is related to the vesicouterine pouch. On digital examination, the urinary bladder is palpable through the...

Procedure B The Thoracic Cage

Review a textbook section on the thoracic cage. 2. As a review activity, label figures 14.5 and 14.6. 3. Examine the thoracic cage of the human skeleton and locate the following bones and features anterior sternal end facets true ribs false ribs floating ribs costal cartilages sternum sternal notch clavicular notch manubrium body 4. Complete Parts C and D of the laboratory report. Figure 14.3 Label the features of the a cervical, b thoracic, and c lumbar vertebrae. Figure 14.3 Label the...

Diseases Of The Motor Neurons And Corticospinal Tracts Figures 81 and

Upper motor neuron UMN lesions are caused by transection of the corticospinal tract or destruction of the cortical cells of origin. They result in spastic paresis with pyramidal signs Babinskis sign . B. Lower motor neuron LMN lesions are caused by damage to the motor neurons. They result in flaccid paralysis, areflexia, atrophy, fasciculations, and fibrillations. Poliomyelitis or Werdnig-Hoffman disease see Figure 8-2A results from damage to the motor neurons. Gracile fasciculus, Cuneate...

Anterior Fontanelle Size

Definition The sum of the longitudinal and transverse diameters of the anterior fontanelle along the sagittal and coronal sutures Figs. 7.24-7.28 . Landmarks The index finger should be placed as far as possible into each of the four corners of the anterior fontanelle. These four positions may be marked with a dot immediately distal to the fingertip. The longitudinal and transverse diameters may be measured directly, or a piece of white paper can be firmly pressed over the fontanelle to transfer...

Analysis of Ridge Patterns

Dermal ridge count To count the dermal ridges of a particular pattern, a line is drawn from the middle or center of the pattern to a triradius a point at which three converging patterns meet Fig. 12.5 . The number of ridges which are crossed by this line or touch the line is counted. The total dermal ridge count for the individual is the sum of the ridge count of the 10 digits. If there are two triradii, as in a whorl, the line is drawn to the most distal triradius. Arch patterns have no ridge...

Kaiserlings Solutions

Kaiserling I 85 g potassium acetate, 45 g potassium nitrate KNO3 , 4,800 mL formalin solution 3-4 . b.Kaiserling II ethyl alcohol, 80-95 . c. Kaiserling III 200 g potassium acetate, 300 mL glycerin, 900 mL tap water. 2. Procedure. Fix specimen for 1-5 d in Kaiserling I. Fixation time will vary with the thickness of the organ. Excessive perfusion with Kaiserling I solution causes loss of natural color because too much blood is rinsed out. Transfer to Kaiserling II for a few hours. Acid...

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can be associated with acute thromboembolic complications. In vitro studies indicate that high glucose levels enhance platelet activation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and other platelet agonists (Sudic et al., 2006). Evidence for in vivo platelet activation was observed in one study of 10 patients who had elevated plasma levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and b-thromboglobulin during DKA that resolved following recovery (Campbell et al., 1985). Evidence for...

Diagram Of Composite Cell

Review a textbook section on a composite cell. 2. Observe the animal cell model and identify its major parts. 3. As a review activity, label figure 4.1 and study figure 4.2. 4. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 4. 5. Prepare a wet mount of cells lining the inside of the cheek. To do this, follow these steps a. Gently scrape force is not necessary and should be avoided the inner lining of your cheek with the broad end of a flat toothpick. b. Stir the toothpick in a drop of water on a clean...

Reactive Lymphocytosis In Common Disease States

It is normal for young children between the ages of 1 and 4 to have a relative lymphocytosis. The white cell differential in this age group will show a reversal in the number of lymphocytes to segmented neutrophils from the adult reference range. The lymphocytes, however, will have normal morphology Fig. 10.11 . By far the most common disease entity displaying variation in lymphocytes is infectious mononucleosis. This is viral illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus EBV , a member of the human...

The Role Of Mri In The Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Ms

The diagnosis of MS is based on the demonstration of disease dissemination in space and time, which can be obtained on a clinical ground (i.e., two relapses in at least two different sites of the CNS) or, alternatively, on the combination of data obtained from clinical assessment and paraclinical and laboratory tests including MRI, cerebrosp-inal fluid (CSF) analysis, and evoked potentials (EP) (33,34). Due to its exquisite sensitivity for the detection of MS lesions at any stage of their...

Nerves Of The Thoracic Wall

The wall of the thorax receives its innervation from intercostal nerves Fig. 8 . These nerves are the ventral rami of segmental nerves leaving the spinal cord at the thoracic vertebral levels. Intercostal nerves are mixed nerves that carry both somatic motor and sensory nerves and autonomics to the skin. The intercostal nerves pass out of the intervertebral foramina and run inferior to the rib. As they reach the costal angle, the nerves pass between the innermost and the internal intercostal...

General Functions of the Nervous System

The nervous system is composed predominantly of neural tissue, but also includes some blood vessels and connective tissue. Neural tissue consists of two cell types nerve cells, or neurons nu'ronz , and neuroglia nu-rog'le-ah or glial cells. Neurons are specialized to react to physical and chemical changes in their surroundings. Small cellular processes called dendrites den'dritz receive the input, and a longer process called an axon ak'son or nerve fiber carries the information away from the...

Disadvantages of domestication

The number of domestic animals greatly exceed the number of wild or related species. In some cases, their wild ancestors have been completely exterminated. The breeding of domestic animals has provided people with many indisputable advantages, but it has its downside. The grazing of large livestock herds diminishes food and water resources of local wild Domesticated cats have helped people keep homes free of rodents for many thousands of years. Photo by Ernest A. James. Bruce Coleman, Inc....

Jeanmartin Charcot And The Salpetriere School

Working in Paris, in the second half of the 19th century, Charcot knew of Parkinson's description and studied the disorder in the large Salpetriere hospital that housed elderly and destitute women. He identified the cardinal features of Parkinson's disease and specifically separated bradykinesia from rigidity 5,16 FIGURE 12 Jean-Martin Charcot. Working in Paris, in the second half of the 19th century, Charcot knew of Parkinson's description and studied the...

Modification in the Policy Implementation Phase

Modification ofpolicies in the implementation phase occurs in both rulemak-ing and in the operation of policies. Recall from the discussion in Chapters 7 and 8 that policy implementation entails these two distinct and sequentially related sets of activities in which policymakers, and those who would influence their decisions and actions, engage. Feedback from the consequences of formulated and implemented policies can also stimulate the modification of policies in the implementation phase, at...

Figure Of Renal System Of Female

The primary sex organs of the male are the two testes (sing. - testis), sometimes referred to as testicles. The testes are enclosed in an external pouch, the scrotum. Lying over the superior and posterior surfaces of a testis is an elongated organ, the epididymis, where sperm are stored. During ejaculation (ejection of the sperm) the sperm are propelled from the epididymis through the vas deferens. The vas deferens, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle make up the...

Premature ejaculation

Premature ejaculation (PE) refers to the persistent or recurrent discharge of semen with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration, before the person wishes it, and earlier than he expects it. In making the diagnosis of PE, the clinician must take into account factors that affect the length of time that the man feels sexually excited. These factors include the age of the patient and his partner, the newness of the sexual partner, and the location and recent frequency...

The Ejaculation Distribution Theory of Premature Ejaculation

Waldinger 5,49 formulated a new theory on the etiology and genesis of lifelong premature ejaculation. He postulated that lifelong premature ejaculation is not an Figure 9.2 The IELT 29 measured by stopwatch in a sample of 110 Dutch males with lifelong premature ejaculation. Ninety percent ejaculates within 1 min and 80 ejaculates within 30 s 48 . Figure 9.2 The IELT 29 measured by stopwatch in a sample of 110 Dutch males with lifelong premature ejaculation. Ninety percent ejaculates within 1...

Hermaphrodite Parts Pictures On Humans

Review a textbook section on reflex arcs. 2. As a review activity, label figure 28.1. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 28. 4. Work with a laboratory partner to demonstrate each of the reflexes listed. See fig. 28.2 also. It is important that muscles involved in the reflexes be totally relaxed in order to observe proper responses. After each demonstration, record your observations in the table provided in Part B of the laboratory report. a. Knee-jerk reflex patellar reflex . Have your...

Claws nails and hooves

The distal ends of mammal digits possess keratinized sheaths or plates that are epidermal derivatives forming claws, nails, or hooves. Only the members of the whale and sirenia seacows families lack these structures. Claws are usually sharp, curved, and pointed. In many cases mammal claws are very similar to the claws found in other vertebrates. A claw consists of a dorsal plate called the unguis and a ventral plate called the subunguis. The unguis is curved both in length and width and...

And the Pilosebaceous Unit

The sebaceous glands are an integral part of the pilosebaceous unit and are found over the entire body surface with the exception of the palms and soles. The gland itself is made up of several lobules, which are separated by vascular connective tissue. These lobules all empty into a short duct which then empties into the upper part of a hair follicle at the level of the infun-dibulum. More than one sebaceous duct may drain into the upper part of the hair follicle. Fig. 4.2. Diagrammatic...

Established Hidradenitis Suppurativa Fig 44ae

Biopsy samples from established HS lesions show sinus tracts with marked suppuration and frank abscess formation. The sinuses are lined by stratified epithelium and are surrounded by fibrosis and inflammation. The squamous epithelium extends from the associated follicular epithelium. The inflamed sinus tracts frequently contain desquamated keratin and hair shafts within the dense fibrosis 6 . Within the adjacent connective tissue there is frequently a dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate,...

Internal Anatomy Of The Heart

A cross section cut through the heart reveals three layers Fig. 7 1 a superficial visceral pericardium or epicardium epi upon heart 2 a middle myocardium myo muscle heart and 3 a deep lining called the endocardium endo within, derived from the endoderm layer of the embryonic trilamina . The endocardium is a sheet of epithelium called endothelium that rests on a thin layer of connective tissue basement membrane. It lines the heart chambers and makes up the valves of the heart. The myocardium is...

Significance to humans

The regenerative abilities of Dugesia have been studied extensively by scientists to better understand the healing and cell regeneration processes in humans. Several species parasitize commercially important species such as oysters and a few species cause pathological problems in marine ornamental fishes kept in aquaria. 1. Pseudoceros ferrugineus 2. Male Kronborgia amphipodicola 3. Female K. amphipodicola 4. Paravortex scrobiculariae 5. Land planarian Bi-palium pennsylvanicum 6. Temnocephala...

Head Circumference OFC

Definition Maximum circumference of the head. Landmarks The maximum head circumference usually horizontal just above the eyebrow ridges , is measured from just above the glabella area to the area near the top of the occipital bone opisthocranion Fig. 6.1 . Position The patient should look straight ahead Fig. 6.1 . Alternative It is often easier, in young infants, to have them stay seated on an adult's lap while measuring the head circumference, and to do the measurement from behind. Remarks The...

Critical Thinking Questions

What acidic and alkaline substances do you encounter in your everyday life What foods do you eat regularly that are acidic What alkaline foods do you eat 2. Using the information on page 51 to distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, try to list all of the sources of saturated and unsaturated fats you have eaten during the past twenty-four hours. 3. How would you reassure a patient who is about to undergo CT scanning for evaluation of a tumor, and who fears becoming a radiation...

Diseases of the Esophagus

Does the patient choke or cough while eating or drinking Does food get stuck when the patients is eating Does the patient complain about a lump in the throat, regurgitation of undigested food, or bad breath Is swallowing painful for the patient Has the patient had heartburn for extended periods and his grandchildren have been complaining about grandpa's bad breath. He has brought one of them with him to help out with the test. Paul is just getting his first instructions on the art of...

Nervous system and sensory organs

The reptilian nervous system is organized into identifiable regions based on structure and function. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord and contains most of the body's nerve cells or neurons. Collections of neurons that have similar function are called nuclei, and the bundles of axons that extend from the cell bodies and transmit messages are called tracts. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory and motor nerves that communicate between the brain or...

Synthetic Nucleotide Analogs Are Used In Chemotherapy

Synthetic analogs of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotides altered in either the heterocyclic ring or the sugar moiety have numerous applications in clinical medicine. Their toxic effects reflect either inhibition of enzymes essential for nucleic acid synthesis or their incorporation into nucleic acids with resulting disruption of base-pairing. Oncologists employ 5-fluoro- or 5-iodouracil, 3-deoxyuridine, 6-thioguanine and 6-mer-captopurine, 5- or 6-azauridine, 5- or 6-azacytidine,...

Diseases of the Large Bowel

Is the patient sufficiently prepared Check the radiograph of the abdomen before you even think about putting in a rectal tube Is there an ileus, a fistula, or an obstruction of the intestinal lumen, or is the examination scheduled only a few days prior to abdominal surgery If yes, only water-soluble iodinated contrast medium may be used. Trudy Herbgarden 55 complains about a change of bowel habits for the last few months. Her primary care physician has done a test of the stool for occult...

Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure

The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called_pressure. 2. The lowest pressure that remains in the arterial system during ventricular relaxation is called _pressure. 3. The pulse rate is equal to the_rate. 4. A pulse that feels full and is not easily compressed is produced by an elevated_. 5. The instrument commonly used to measure systemic arterial blood pressure is called a 6. Blood pressure is expressed in units of_. 7. The upper number of the fraction used to...

Ginseng And Morphine And Related Opioids

The relationship between morphine and associated opioids and ginseng has proved both remarkable and unexpected. Opioids are widely used as legitimate, effective analgesics, especially in terminal afflictions such as cancers although continued use of morphine-type drugs is rapidly accompanied by the development of tolerance, the craving for ever-increasing doses, and by psychic and physical dependence. Seeking effective antagonists of the narcotic and addictive effects of opium and morphine,...

Levodopa Challenge Test

It can be difficult to accurately differentiate PD from other forms of parkinsonism, especially during the early stages of disease. Levodopa administration can be used for diagnostic purposes, as PD patients respond more frequently and robustly to levodopa compared with other forms of parkinsonism. Clarke and Davies 145 reviewed 13 studies that examined whether an acute levodopa or apomorphine challenge test could aid in the diagnosis of PD. Four studies examined de novo patients and nine...

Cerebrum Sheep Dissection

O bserve a sheep brain from a coronal section. Note the longitudinal fissure, gray matter, white matter, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and thalamus. 10. Dispose of the sheep brain as directed by the laboratory instructor. 11. Complete Parts A and B of Laboratory Report 30. Figure 30.3 Lateral surface of the sheep brain. Figure 30.3 Lateral surface of the sheep brain. Figure 30.4 Ventral surface of the sheep brain. Longitudinal fissure Trigeminal nerve Facial nerve...

Dissection Methods Of The Heart

Many older methods 7 are impractical for routine diagnostic pathology. Only the inflow-outflow and short axis bread slice methods have withstood the test of time the latter technique is applicable to virtually any form of heart disease. In addition, some recently described methods are useful for teaching purposes and correlations with current cardiac imaging 8-14 . INFLOW-OUTFLOW METHOD OF CARDIAC DISSECTION This technique is suitable primarily for normal hearts. For each side of the heart, the...

Structure of a Skeletal Muscle

A skeletal muscle is an organ of the muscular system. It is composed primarily of skeletal muscle tissue, nervous tissue, blood, and connective tissues. An individual skeletal muscle is separated from adjacent muscles and held in position by layers of dense connective tissue called fascia fash'e-ah . This connective tissue surrounds each muscle and may project beyond the end of its muscle fibers to form a cordlike tendon. Fibers in a tendon intertwine with those in the periosteum of a bone,...

Procedure B The Arterial System

Review a textbook section on the arterial system. 2. As a review activity, label figures 46.2, 46.3, 46.4, and 46.5. 3. Locate the following arteries of the systemic circuit on the charts and torso aortic arch arch of the aorta thoracic aorta abdominal aorta branches of the aorta coronary arteries brachiocephalic artery left common carotid artery left subclavian artery celiac artery gastric artery Figure 46.1 Label the major blood vessels associated with the pulmonary and systemic circuits....

Cross Sectional Anatomy of the Brain

The illustrations in this chapter are accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance imaging MRI scans. Together they represent a mini-atlas of brain slices in the three orthogonal planes i.e., midsagittal, coronal, and axial . An insert on each figure shows the level of the slice. The most commonly tested structures are labeled. II. MIDSAGITTAL SECTION Figures 1-1, 1-2, and 1-3 . The location of the structures shown in the figures should be known. Fornix column...

Major Arteries and Veins

Match the arteries in column A with the regions supplied in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. external carotid inferior mesenteric upper digestive tract, spleen, and liver Provide the name of the missing artery in each of the following sequences 1. brachiocephalic artery,_, right axillary artery 2. ascending aorta,_, thoracic aorta 3. abdominal aorta,_, ascending colon 4. brachiocephalic artery,_, right external carotid artery 5. axillary artery,_, radial artery...

Upper Facial Height Nasal Height

Definition Distance from the root of the nose nasion to the base of the nose subnasion . Landmarks Measure from the deepest part of the nasal root nasion to the deepest point of concavity at the base of the nose subnasion , in a vertical plane Figs 7.1 and 7.13 . Instruments Sliding calipers are most accurate. A tape-measure could be used, avoiding the natural curve of the midface. Position Frankfort horizontal, with the facial profile in the vertical. Alternative If the nasal tip is long or...

Microscopic Structure

Recall from chapter 5 page 158 that bone cells called osteocytes os'te-o-sltz are located in tiny, bony chambers called lacunae, which form concentric circles around central canals Haversian canals . Osteocytes transport nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells by means of cellular processes passing through canali-culi. The intercellular material of bone tissue is largely collagen and inorganic salts. Collagen gives bone its strength and resilience, and inorganic salts make it hard and...

Wallerian degeneration

The severance of axon from the nerve body initiates a series of coordinated events, which produce the disintegration of distal axonal segments, removal of myelin and remodelling of myelinating cells, and finally nerve fibre regeneration, by axonal growth from the nerve slump proximal to the site of insult. This process of nerve degeneration was discovered by Augustus Waller in 1850 and is generally known as 'Wallerian degeneration'. The term Wallerian degeneration is currently used to describe...

Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities

POLYPLOIDY is the addition of extra haploid sets of chromosomes i.e., 23 to the normal diploid set of chromosomes i.e., 46 . A. Triploidy is a condition in which cells contain 69 chromosomes. It results in spontaneous abortion of the conceptus or only brief survival of the liveborn infant after birth. Triploidy occurs as a result of either a failure of meiosis in a germ cell e.g., fertilization of a diploid egg by a haploid sperm or dispermy two sperm that fertilize one egg . B. Tetraploidy...

Autoverification in the Clinical Hematology Laboratory

As analytical methods in automated laboratories become faster and more efficient, the rate-determining step for the release of information to the patient record is no longer the generation of data, but our ability to process and manage data. Medical technologists are responsible for numerous complex and integrated tasks in the clinical laboratory that require subjective or interpretive skill. In addition to these necessarily manual tasks, however, many of the decisions made by medical...

Neurolemmocyte On Skeletal Muscle Model

Review a textbook section on skeletal muscle tissue. 2. Reexamine the microscopic structure of skeletal muscle by observing a prepared microscope slide of this tissue. Use figure 18.1 of skeletal muscle tissue to locate the following features striations alternating light and dark 3. Review a textbook section on structure of a skeletal muscle. 4. Study figures 18.2 and 18.3. 5. Examine the torso and locate examples of fascia, tendons, and aponeuroses. Locate examples of tendons in your own...

Blood Pressure Monitoring

The cardiovascular system is most commonly assessed by monitoring arterial blood pressure. Blood pressure is proportional to the product of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance BP CO x SVR CO HR x SV MAP 1 3 SBP 2 3 DBP where BP is blood pressure, CO is cardiac output, SVR is systemic vascular resistance, HR is heart rate, SV is stroke volume, MAP is mean arterial pressure, SBP is systolic blood pressure, and DBP is diastolic blood pressure. Stroke volume is dependent on preload,...

The Realistic Accuracy Model RAM

The realistic accuracy model RAM by Funder 1995 begins with the premise that personality traits are real and observable. As a consequence, the RAM assumes that informants reach consensus not because they share similar meaning systems or because of overlap, but rather because their judgments about a target's personality are at least partly accurate. According to the RAM, the path between a target's personality and the accurate informant judgment can be described in four steps, each associated...

Endocrine System Anatomy And Physiology

Review textbook sections on the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, and other endocrine glands. 2. As a review activity, label figures 37.1, 37.2, 37.3, 37.4, 37.5, and 37.6. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 37. 4. Examine the human torso and locate the following pituitary stalk infundibulum pituitary gland thyroid gland parathyroid glands adrenal glands adrenal medulla adrenal cortex pancreas pineal gland thymus gland ovaries testes Figure...

Procedure A External Features

Fetal pigs usually are embalmed with a mixture of propylene glycol, formaldehyde, and phenol, which prevents microorganisms from causing the tissues to decompose. However, because fumes from this embalming fluid may be annoying and may irritate skin, be sure to work in a well-ventilated room and wear disposable gloves to protect your hands. If your fetal pig has an incision in the neck, it marks the location where colored latex was injected into the blood vessels. Rinse the pig off before...

Locate And Name The Largest Foramen In The Skeleton

Review textbook sections on the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. 2. As a review activity, label figure 12.1. 3. Examine the human skeleton and locate the following parts. Palpate as many of the corresponding bones in your own skeleton as possible. cranial bones facial bones hyoid bone vertebral column vertebrae intervertebral disks sacrum coccyx thoracic cage ribs pectoral girdle scapulae clavicles upper limbs humerus radius ulna carpals metacarpals phalanges pelvic girdle...

Gluconeogenesis Control of the Blood Glucose

Mayes, PhD, DSc, amp David A. Bender, PhD Gluconeogenesis is the term used to include all pathways responsible for converting noncarbohydrate precursors to glucose or glycogen. The major substrates are the glucogenic amino acids and lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Liver and kidney are the major gluco-neogenic tissues. Gluconeogenesis meets the needs of the body for glucose when carbohydrate is not available in sufficient amounts from the diet or from glycogen reserves. A supply of...

Liver Cirrhosis Collateral Circulation

The hemiazygous vein ascends on the left side of the vertebral column and drains blood from the left renal vein to the azygous vein. B. The inferior vena cava IVC is formed by the union of the right and left common iliac veins at vertebral level L5, drains all the blood from below the diaphragm even portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract after it percolates through the liver to the right atrium. The IVC may be damaged during surgical repair of a herniated intervertebral disk. The IVC...

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

Ovarian GCTs account for approximately 25 to 30 of all ovarian tumors. The classification of the World Health Organization recognizes several entities that roughly correspond to testicular GCTs Table 4-2 . Most ovarian GCTs are classified as benign ter-atomas dermoid cysts , which account for 95 of all ovarian GCTs.21 Most patients are younger than 30 years of age. In the first two decades, ovarian GCTs account for 60 of all ovarian tumors, one-third of which are malignant.40,41 Dysgerminoma is...

TF Tn and sTn Vaccines

Patients with various epithelial cancers have been immunized with unclustered TF-KLH and sTn-KLH vaccines plus various adjuvants (84,85). High-titer IgM and IgG antibodies against TF and sTn antigens resulted. In our hands the majority of the reactivity was against antigenic epitopes present in the vaccine that were not present on naturally expressed mucins (porcine or ovine submaxillary mucins PSM or OSM ) or tumor cells (84,86). Based on previous studies with Tn antigen (87), Kurosaka and...

Dorsal Columnmedial Lemniscus Pathway Figure 72 see also Figure

The dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway mediates tactile discrimination, vibration sensation, form recognition, and joint and muscle sensation conscious proprioception . B. Receptors include Pacini's and Meissner's tactile corpuscles, joint receptors, muscle spindles, and Golgi tendon organs. C. First-order neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia at all levels. They project axons to the spinal cord through the medial root entry zone. First-order neurons give rise to 1....

Muscles that Move the Foot

Movements of the foot include movements of the ankle and toes. A number of muscles that move the foot are located in the leg. They attach the femur, tibia, and fibula to bones of the foot and are responsible for moving the foot upward dorsiflexion or downward plantar flexion and turning the foot so the toes are inward inversion or outward eversion . These muscles are shown in figures 9.39, 9.40, 9.41, 9.42, in reference plates 68, 69, 70, and are listed in table 9.14. Muscles that move the foot...

Exercise For Sartorius Html

As its name implies, the biceps femoris bi'seps fem'or-is has two heads, one attached to the ischium and the other attached to the femur. This muscle passes along the back of the thigh on the lateral side and connects to the proximal ends of the fibula and tibia. The biceps femoris is one of the hamstring muscles, and its tendon hamstring a Muscles of the anterior right thigh. Isolated views of b the vastus intermedius, c-e adductors of the thigh, f-g flexors of the thigh. a Muscles of the...

Anterior Forearm Superficial Muscle

Review textbook sections on muscles that move the pectoral girdle, muscles that move the arm, muscles that move the forearm, and muscles that move the hand. 2. As a review activity, label figures 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, and 21.4. 3. Locate the following muscles in the torso and models of the upper limb. Also, locate in your own body as many of the muscles as you can. muscles that move the pectoral girdle serratus anterior pectoralis minor muscles that move the arm coracobrachialis pectoralis major...

Hidradenitis Surgery Before And After

Hidradenitis suppurativa HS, synonym acne inversa is a cicatrizing and frequently persistent inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous follicles and terminal hair follicles of apocrine-gland-bearing areas in the adult 12, 31 . The condition may remain relatively mild but nevertheless distressing 32 , ranging from a few but recalcitrant suppurating lesions to an advanced widespread and disabling disease lasting for years or decades. Possible consequences of longstanding, recurrent disease are...

Follicular Occlusion Diseases

Follicular occlusion diseases or perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens The term follicular occlusion disease refers to a possible common pathogenic mechanism of occlusion of sebaceous or apocrine glands, and diseases included in this term are listed in Table 6.1. An association of these disorders has been described in several patients, suggesting that a causal relationship may be found rather than mere co-occurrence. It has therefore been suggested that the association of...

Anatomical And Morphological Relationships Of The Male Reproductive System

The male reproductive system comprises the gonads two testes , excretory ducts epididymis, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct , and several accessory structures prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, and penis . These are illustrated in Figure 12-1. The key steps of organogenesis of the sexually indifferent, yet chromosomally determined male gonad are discussed in Chapter 14. The presentation of this chapter will begin with the generation of the morphologically identifiable testes....

Development of the Nervous System

. THE NEURAL TUBE Figure 4-1 gives rise to the central nervous system CNS i.e., brain and spinal cord . A. The brain stem and spinal cord have 1. An alar plate that gives rise to the sensory neurons 2. A basal plate that gives rise to the motor neurons Figure 4-2 B. The neural tube gives rise to three primary vesicles, which develop into five secondary vesicles Figure 4-3 . C. Alpha-fetoprotein AFP is found in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum. It is an indicator of neural tube defects...

Reactive astrogliosis

All types of brain insults, regardless of aetiology, trigger a complex astroglial response, which is manifested by astrocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. This glial response is defined as reactive astrogliosis Figure 9.1 . Reactive astrogliosis is a defensive brain reaction which is aimed at a isolation of the damaged area from the rest of the CNS tissue, b reconstruction of the blood-brain barrier, and c facilitation of the remodelling of brain circuits in areas surrounding the lesioned...

Sketch The Millimeter Scale As It Appears Under The Scanning Ob

Sketch the millimeter scale as it appears under the scanning objective magnification. The circle represents the field of view through the microscope. 2. What is the diameter of the scanning field of view in millimeters _ 3. Microscopic objects often are measured in micrometers. A micrometer equals 1 1000 of a millimeter and is symbolized by im. What is the diameter of the scanning power field of view in micrometers _ 4. If a circular object or specimen extends halfway across the scanning...

Does Air Molecules Escape From A Punctured Tire

What was the change in the level of molasses in 10 minutes _ 2. What was the change in the level of molasses in 30 minutes _ 3. How do you explain this change _ Indicate which of the following involves osmosis by answering yes or no. 1. A fresh potato is peeled, weighed, and soaked in a strong salt solution. The next day it is discovered that the potato has lost weight._ 2. Garden grass wilts after being exposed to dry chemical fertilizer._ 3. Air molecules escape from a punctured tire as a...

Procedure Bhearing Tests

Perform the following tests in a quiet room, using your laboratory partner as the test subject. 1. Auditory acuity test. To conduct this test, follow a. Have the test subject sit with eyes closed. b. Pack one of the subject's ears with cotton. c. Hold a ticking watch close to the open ear and slowly move it straight out and away from the ear. d. Have the subject indicate when the sound of the ticking can no longer be heard. e. Use a meter stick to measure the distance in centimeters from the...

Abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty surgical technique

A 6-cm curvilinear incision is made from 2 finger breadths proximal to the radial styloid process, to 1 cm distal to the base of the meta-carpal (Fig. 2A). The radial artery is exposed and retracted, as are branches of the radial sensory nerve. The first extensor compartment retinacu-lum is released, as would be performed for De-Quervain's disease, leaving the volar attachment intact. At the myotendinous junction of the APL, the ulnarmost slip of APL is released, and freed to the level of its...

Drug Delivery Systems

Commonly used ophthalmic drug formulations, such as solutions, gels, suspensions, and ointments, deliver drugs at rates that follow first-order kinetics, in which the concentration of the drug transferred to the eye decreases exponentially with time. To achieve a constant concentration of the drug in the precorneal tear film and create a steady-state concentration in the tissues, an ophthalmic drug delivery system needs to be designed to deliver a specific drug at a zero-order kinetic rate. At...

Oral Cavity Of Fetal

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray on its left side. 2. Locate the major salivary glands on one side of the head. To do this, follow these steps a. Clear away any remaining fascia and other connective tissue from the region below the ear and near the joint of the mandible. b. Identify the parotid gland, a relatively large triangular mass of glandular tissue just below the ear. Although this gland covers a large area, it is poorly developed in the fetal stage of development. c. Look...

Nose Classification System

The nose is remarkable in its variability, in profile, frontal plane, and from the undersurface. Details and definitions of the soft tissue and bony landmarks are available in references at the end of this chapter and are illustrated in Fig. 7.65a. A qualitative assessment of the nose should include 1. the nasofrontal angle is it normal, flat, or deep 2. the nasal root protrusion is it average, high, or low 3. the nasal bridge is it high, low, broad, beaky, or bulbous 4. the nasal tip is it...

Pictures Of A One Month Old Foetus

Eporters gathered in Aries, France, on March 1, 1995, to R celebrate a very special birthday. Jeanne Calment, a woman with the distinction at the time of being listed in The Guinness Book of Records as oldest living human, was turning 120 years old. Although she was able to ride her bicycle daily up until her 100th birthday, after that Jeanne began to feel some physical effects of her many years. Her hearing diminished, and she lost her vision to cataracts. She hadn't been able to walk since...

Membranes and cavities

Parietal pericardium covered by fibrous pericardium Figure 2.1 Label the major body cavities. Figure 2.1 Label the major body cavities. Figure 2.2 Label the smaller cavities and sinuses within the head. Figure 2.2 Label the smaller cavities and sinuses within the head. Figure 2.3 Label the thoracic membranes and cavities in a and the abdominopelvic membranes and cavity in b as shown in these superior views of transverse sections. Figure 2.3 Label the thoracic membranes and cavities in a and the...

Anatomical And Morphological Relationships Of The Female Reproductive System

The human female reproductive system comprises the gonads two ovaries and uterine tubes, a single uterus, a vagina, external genitalia, and the mammary glands. These are diagrammed in Figure 13-1 with the exception of the mammary glands, which are diagrammed in Figure 14-5. The key steps of organogenesis of the sexually indifferent, yet chromosomally determined female gonad are discussed in Chapter 14. The presentation in this chapter will begin with the generation of a morphologically...

Procedure C The Venous System

Review a textbook section on the venous system. 2. As a review activity, label figures 46.6, 46.7, 46.8, 46.9, and 46.10. 3. Locate the following veins of the systemic circuit on the charts and the torso external jugular veins internal jugular veins subclavian veins brachiocephalic veins Figure 46.3 Label the major arteries of the shoulder and upper limb. Figure 46.3 Label the major arteries of the shoulder and upper limb. superior vena cava veins from upper limb and shoulder radial vein...

What If Heart Beat Goes Fast Frequently And Qt And Pr Intervals Are Not Normal

The normal heartbeat is initiated by specialized cardiac cells (so-called pacemaker cells) located in the right atrium adjacent to its junction with the superior vena cava. These cells make up a specialized, albeit somewhat diffuse, region of the right atrium called the sinus node. The rate and regularity of activity in the sinus node (the cardiac pacemaker) is determined by both the intrinsic firing rate (automaticity) of the cells within the node and the influence of extrinsic factors on...

Procedure Ahuman Brain

Review a textbook section on the brain. 2. As a review activity, label figures 29.1, 29.2, and 29.3. 3. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 29. 4. Observe the dissectible model and the preserved specimen of the human brain. Locate each of the following features cerebral hemispheres corpus callosum convolutions gyri sulci central sulcus lateral sulcus fissures longitudinal fissure transverse fissure frontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobe insula cerebral cortex basal ganglia...

Clinical Considerations

A surgical ligature may be placed on the subclavian artery or the axillary artery between the thyrocervical trunk and the subscapular artery, or on the brachial artery distal to the inferior ulnar collateral artery. 2. A surgical ligature may not be placed on the axillary artery just distal to the subscapular artery. B. The radial artery and the cephalic vein are the vessels most commonly used for access during long-term hemodialysis. C. Percutaneous arterial catheterization uses the...

Interalar Distance Nasal Width

Definition Distance between the most lateral aspects of the alae nasi. Landmarks Measure from the lateral-most aspect of one ala nasi to the lateral-most aspect of the ala nasi Fig. 7.72 . Instruments Spreading calipers are the most accurate instruments, although a transparent calibrated ruler or tape-measure can be substituted. Position The patient should be reclining, with the vertical. Remarks Values for nasal width from birth to age 16 years are shown in Fig. 7.73. There is tremendous...

Procedure A The Pelvic Girdle

Review a textbook section on the pelvic girdle. 2. As a review activity, label figures 16.1 and 16.2. 3. Examine the bones of the pelvic girdle and locate the following ischial tuberosity ischial spine pubis symphysis pubis pubic arch obturator foramen 4. Complete Part A of Laboratory Report 16. I Examine the male and female pelves. Look for major differences between them. Note especially the flare of the iliac bones, the angle of the pubic arch, the distance between the ischial spines and...

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Fig. 8.44a The right iliosacral joint is already fused in its lower part. The left iliosacral joint shows pronounced periarticular sclerosis along erosions of the bone arrow . This is a rather typical pattern of ankylosing spondylitis. b In the final phase and with maximal expression of Bechterew disease as ankylosing spondylitis is also called , the paraspinous ligaments become ossified, giving rise to the so-called bamboo spine. The intervertebral spaces are completely bridged by ossified...

Degenerative Brain Disease

A Dementia of the Alzheimer type b Pick disease a Dementia of the Alzheimer type b Pick disease Fig. 11.42a Inner and outer CSF spaces are much to wide for the age of this patient 65 and indicate generalized atrophy of the brain as seen in Alzheimer disease. b In Pick disease, parenchymal atrophy is limited to the frontal lobe. c Inner and outer CSF spaces are wide and the periventricular parenchyma is lower than usual in density. A small lacunar infarct is seen in the left basal ganglia arrow...

Microelectrode Recording And Microstimulation

3.1 Overview of Microelectrode Recording Since its introduction by Albe-Fessard and Guiot 22 in the early 1960s, microelectrode recording MER has been performed in the human thalamus during surgery for parkinsonism and other movement disorders 23-33 . There is now a growing literature on microelectrode recording in the human GPi 34-41 and the human STN 42 . The most common technique is recording of single-unit, extracellular action potentials using high impedence 0.1-1.0 Mohm at 1000 Hz...

Critical Thinking Application

Identify the muscles indicated in figure 23.7. Figure 23.7 Identify the muscles that appear as lower limb surface features in these photographs (a and b). Figure 23.7 Identify the muscles that appear as lower limb surface features in these photographs (a and b). (a) Left thigh, anterior view (b) Right lower limb, medial view (a) Left thigh, anterior view (b) Right lower limb, medial view

Coronal Section Through The Mamillary Bodies Figures 16 and

The location of the structures shown in the figures should be known. Figure 1-6. Coronal section of the brain at the level of the thalamus, mamillary bodies, and hippocampal formation. Note that the internal capsule lies between the thalamus and the lentiform nucleus. Figure 1-6. Coronal section of the brain at the level of the thalamus, mamillary bodies, and hippocampal formation. Note that the internal capsule lies between the thalamus and the lentiform nucleus. Corpus callosum Caudate...

Cognitive Therapy Focusses on Cognition and Behaviour

The cognitive model of emotional disorders is central to every aspect of cognitive therapy the formulation, intervention planning and change processes. Thus, the therapist seeks to understand the client's presenting problems in terms of maladaptive beliefs and behaviours and develops an intervention plan that will effect changes in the presenting problems through changes in beliefs and behaviours. When successes and difficulties are encountered in the therapeutic process these are formulated in...

Cardiac Defibrillation

Today, sudden cardiac arrest death is one of the most common causes of mortality in developed countries 3 million people experience sudden cardiac arrest worldwide, and the annual incidence in the United States is 300,000. Sudden cardiac arrest claims more lives in the United States each year than the combination of deaths from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS , breast cancer, lung cancer, and stroke 31 . Several studies have identified the primary risk factors for sudden cardiac arrest,...

Procedure H Muscles Of The Forelimb

Place the fetal pig in the dissecting tray with its ventral side up. 2. Remove any remaining fat and connective tissue from a forelimb to expose the muscles. 3. Transect the pectoral muscles and lift aside their cut edges. 4. Study figure 24.8, and then locate and dissect the following muscles from the medial surface of the arm and forearm of the forelimb biceps brachii triceps brachii long head medial head Figure 24.8 Medial muscles of the right forelimb, ventral view. Figure 24.8 Medial...

Regeneration of Nerve Axons

Injury to the cell body usually kills the neuron, and because mature neurons do not divide, it is not replaced. However, a damaged peripheral axon may regenerate. For example, if injury or disease separates an axon in a peripheral nerve from its cell body, the distal portion of the axon and its myelin sheath deteriorate within a few weeks. Macrophages remove the fragments of myelin and other cellular debris. The proximal end of the injured axon develops sprouts shortly after the injury....

Patient with Acute Abdominal Pain

Is the patient standing up or positioned on the left side, and is the x-ray beam horizontal Do you see air outside of the gastrointestinal tract Is the air within the gastrointestinal tract normally distributed Are sentinel loops with air-fluid levels of differing height present Are there characteristic calcifications present The paramedics found Melissa Stonegrave 51 helpless on a park bench. Passersby had noticed her as she was lying on her side wincing and calling for help. The paramedics...

Hermaphrodite Genitalia Images Medical

Lepidodermella squamata Dujardin, 1841 , River Seine, Paris, France. A short, tenpin-shaped gastrotrich that grows to 0.007 in 0.19 mm in length. Distinct, five-lobed head separated from the body by a short neck. Trunk has posterior caudal furca and two adhesive tubes. Cuticle consists of scales without ridges or spines. Cilia present on the lateral margin of the head and ven-trally in two rows. Freshwater bodies across the United States Arkansas, Ohio, Michigan, New Hampshire, and North...

Correlational Techniques

Biomedical research often seeks to establish if there is a relationship between two variables for example, is there a relationship between salt intake and blood pressure, or between cigarette smoking and life expectancy The methods used to do this are correlational techniques, which focus on the co-relatedness of the two variables. There arc two basic kinds of correlational techniques Correlation, which is used to establish and quantify the strength and direction of the relationship between two...

Buck S Fascia Rupture

A Photograph of calcium oxalate calculi shows that these kidney stones are colorless, octahedral-shaped crystals that look like small squares crossed by intersecting diagonal lines. These are the most common 80 type of kidney stone. B Photograph of magnesium ammonium sulfate struvite or triple phosphate calculi shows that these kidney stones are colorless, rectangular, prism-shaped crystals. These are the second most common 15 type of kidney stone. C...

Procedure Bthe Upper Limb

Review a textbook section on the upper limb. 2. As a review activity, label figures 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, and 15.6. 3. Examine the following bones and features of the upper limb greater tubercle lesser tubercle intertubercular groove anatomical neck surgical neck Figure 15.1 Label the bones and features of the shoulder and upper limb anterior view . Figure 15.1 Label the bones and features of the shoulder and upper limb anterior view . medial epicondyle lateral epicondyle coronoid fossa...