Specification of Research Question

Clear specification of a research question is the necessary first step in all etiologic and interventional epidemiologic research and is often one of the hardest. More specifically, the greatest challenge in the epidemiologic study of urban health is in adequate specification of research questions that address how and why urban living may affect health. There are three primary reasons why this task may be particularly challenging in urban health. First, much of what may be considered urban...

Community Organizing In Urban Neighborhoods

This particular intervention has been designed to enhance the urban core of American grid cities which tend to have been planned without any provisions of significant public gathering places. Community organizing in urban neighborhoods can reverse alienation and foster a sense of responsibility that counteracts urban blight it encourages residents to take initiative against social disorder and physical deterioration (Wilson, 1996). Neighborhood stewardship manifested in physical improvements of...

Equity and Social Justice in Planning

Equity and social justice constitutes another primary theme that guides planning practice and urban health. In terms of urban health, an equity and social justice perspective guiding urban planning research and practice would build on the health disparities approach to prioritize improved and expanded health care services to those individuals and populations experiencing the worst health outcomes and who are least able to pay for services, for example, low-income, elderly, racial ethnic...

Potential Strategies For Improving The Health Of People In Cities Of Nepal

The process of rapid urban growth is inevitable in Nepal but it should be harnessed in a planned way to ensure a safe urban environment as well as the health and well being of urban citizens. Therefore, health concerns should be the heart of urban planning and urban environmental management practices. Environmentally friendly urban planning and healthy city programs should be the key to planned development and management of urban growth. The Health Impact Assessment of urban policies, programs,...

Case Control Studies

The case-control design has been used extensively to characterize occupational and environmental causes of cancer, but much less frequently for other diseases, and it has had limited application specifically to urban environmental health problems. The design has proved particularly useful for cancer, as there is often a lengthy period from the time of first exposure until excess risk is manifest. The cases and controls themselves are the principal source of information on exposure. Some...

Demography Of Lgbt People

The nature, composition and size of the gay community have been the subject of much debate. Indeed, whether or not LGBT people constitute a community at all is often questioned. And if such a community exists, how ought it be defined Is this a community that can be defined geographically or by its institutions and organizations Or is this an imagined community that exists, not in any spatial location, but in the sense of a shared affinity and common purpose Woolwine, 2000 Are its members...

Framing The Problem 21 Life in the Grid City

Most American towns and cities have been laid out with a grid pattern comprised of streets and side streets crossing at right angles Figure 1 . Such a simple network of orthogonal streets that intersect in a regular manner creates rectangular or square city blocks. The rationale of city planning to shape the urban environment with this pattern of vertical and horizontal streets lies in increased connectivity the possible routes between any given two points is maximized. Short of diagonal...

Residential Segregation And Gentrification

A major problem of urban cities is the residential segregation of minority groups, which leads to economic constraints, lack of social and material resources, and diminished social capital. Residential segregation results, in part, from two of the most dominant demographic trends in almost all cities in the U.S., suburbanization i.e., white flight and metropolitan deconcentration Browne, 2000 Immergluck, 2001 Massey and Denton, 1988 . Metropolitan deconcentration reflects the process of...

The Costs of Longitudinal Approaches

None of the advantages from longitudinal research comes without cost, especially if long durations of observation are needed to monitor the health outcomes of interest. Consider studies of seasonal variations in health, the effects of climate or ecological change, mortality and morbidity due to diseases with long latency periods, and the impact of behavioral interventions whose effects are slow to develop. In rich countries such as the U.S., the extra costs have not precluded longitudinal...

References

Urban and Environmental Planning in Nepal, IUCN, Kathmandu, Nepal, September 15, 2004 Adhikari, A. 1999 . Air Pollution Situational Analysis and Management Plan, World Health Organization Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, unpublished report. Kathmandu, Nepal. Asian Development Bank 2001 . Nepal Urban Sector Strategy, His Majesty's Government of Nepal and the Asian Development, Bank Volume 1, TA 3272 ReportJuly 2001 . Bal Kumar, K.C., Dev Pant, P., Subedi, G., and...