How to Whiten Your Skin Naturally

Skin Whitening Forever

This eBook guides you towards getting a fairer and white skin with natural ingredients. It offers readers some economical and useful natural remedies and cream that can be easily made available at home. Make Your Own Skin Whitening Creams for Pennies! These are the same creams that are being sold for Hundreds of Pounds at the Beauty Salons. You will discover: How to Whiten Your Skin Naturally, Safely and in the Comfort of your Own Home with Effective Results. The Easy Way to Whiten Skin Pigmentations, Freckles, Age Spots, Acne Marks, Dark Underarms, Melasma, or your Overall Skin Color. How to About Powerful Skin Whitening Ingredients that can be bought Cheaply from any grocery store. Why Skin Color Constantly Changes by itself and how you can take advantage of this information for Beautiful Even-Toned Skin! How to Prevent Skin Discolorations, Skin Darkening and Uneven Blotches from happening in the first place. Popular Products which Claim to Lighten Which Products Continuously Lighten Your Skin Over Time and which ones Darken It making your problem even worse! How to Boost the Effectiveness of Any Skin Whitening Products Several Times Over with an easy yet effective method. Which Diets Play a Serious Role in Whitening your Skin and those that Darken your Skin even more. Continue reading...

Skin Whitening Forever Overview


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Natural Skin Whitening Ebook

Nutritional scientist Thienna Ho, Ph. D., has spent her entire professional career researching human skin and has revolutionized skin care practices for both women and men. Her natural, safe, and inexpensive skin care secrets will leave you radiant and healthy from the inside out. Incredible wealth of knowledge, if all her theories are verifiable she very well may have cracked an age old anthropological puzzle. Cosmetic applications aside, the advice also leads one to a perfectly detoxified liver. I bought it for extreme freckling/sallowness and may come out of it with overall health. You'll discover: The wonder mineral that helps your body eliminate toxins. Nutritional answers to blotchy, scaly, rough, and unhealthy skin. Genetic, cultural, and historic influences on your skin color, type, and overall health. 3 things you can do right now to improve your complexion. Easy ways to incorporate diet and lifestyle changes that lead to vital, glowing skin.

Natural Skin Whitening Ebook Overview

Contents: Ebook
Author: Dr. Thienna Ho
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Gender And Parkinsonism

Although several studies have suggested that those with darker skin have a reduced risk of PD compared to lighter skin individuals (25,63), a review of 20 studies of PD in African-Americans found no consistent evidence to support this theory (64). The authors believed that ascertainment bias compromised the studies they reviewed. Studies that included communities with a mixed population did not observe any racial differences (55,65). Two studies conducted by the same investigator using similar methodology showed that the prevalence rate in African-Americans was five times higher than in the Nigerians who presumably share a common genetic background (55,66). This difference remained significant when the life expectancy in the general population in the two countries was taken into account. There is no evidence that darker-skinned persons have larger numbers of sub-stantia nigra-pigmented neurons nor is the vulnerability of these neurons different in different races. In one...

Physical Characteristics

Males grow to 2.4 in (6 cm) in length and females to 2.8-3 in (7-8 cm). Sexually dimorphic and dichromatic. All fins are rounded. The dorsal fin of males is larger than that of females and is set over the anal fin, far back on the portion of the body that tapers to the caudal peduncle. The body is block-shaped, with a humpbacked appearance in mature fish. The depth of the caudle peduncle is much smaller than the body depth. The head is small and pointed. The basic background color of the body is brownish gray to beige the degree of dark pigmentation is quite variable. Males are bright orange to red at the base of the caudal peduncle, with iridescent blue highlights on the forward part of peduncle between the anal and dorsal fins. The middle portion of the body has gold highlights, and the abdomen is reddish to yellowish near the operculum. The dorsal fin is sometimes black, the caudal fin is orange to yellow, and the anal fin is orange. Color patterns and intensities vary greatly by...

Of the Skin Folds Dowling Degos and Kitamuras Diseases

Some patients are reported as having only DDD or only KRA while others have an association of HS and a pigmentation disorder. In most of these observations, patients' pigmentation phenotype is not reported and one could wonder whether this abnormality is not more common in people with a dark skin colour. This pigmentation may be the result of post-inflammatory pigmentation after bacterial infections or after the frequent inflammation of the folds as seen in HS. The specificity of these signs would therefore appear to be poor. The association is not well supported by epidemiological studies either. It is fair to ask questions such as How often - in our everyday practice - do we see hyperpigmentation in axillary and other folds and How often do we report it . The answers are most likely Very often for the first question and Never for the second one for most dermatologists. Data are therefore lacking to establish the likelihood of a causal relationship between these rare diseases and HS....

New nucleoside analogs

What about long-term toxicity In monkeys, there were minor skin problems, usually hyperpigmentation, after 52 weeks of exposure. SPD-754 was thus significantly less toxic than its racemate BCH-10652, which caused severe degenerative derma-topathy in all exposed monkeys. Nevertheless, these results give cause for concern (Locas 2004). Other disadvantages are becoming apparent 3TC and FTC significantly lower intracellular levels of SPD-754 - probably competitively. Combination with cytidine analogs such as 3TC and FTC could therefore pose a problem (Bethell 2004). Further drugs that are in the pipeline at Shire Biochem include SPD-756 (BCH-13520) and SPD-761. However, these are not as far developed and might disappear completely, as not much has been heard about these recently.

The Inheritance of Continuous Characteristics

The converse of polygeny is pleiotropy, in which one gene affects multiple characteristics. Many genes exhibit pleiotropy. PKU, mentioned earlier, results from a recessive allele persons homozygous for this allele, if untreated, exhibit mental retardation, blue eyes, and light skin color.

Prevention Of Wrinkles Of Photoaging

Quite apart from specific products, elimination of UVR exposure essentially prevents wrinkles. The effect of lifelong UVR avoidance is easily shown by comparison of the never-exposed skin of the buttocks to even suberythrogenic exposed skin of the face in any individual of types I to III skin. Although wrinkles usually appear only after some years of exposure and are noticeable beginning in the second or third decade of life, other seemingly benign yet insidious signs of photoaging, such as freckling, can be shown even in young children, especially those with light skin and high solar exposure as in Australia 3 . Complete avoidance of UVR is impractical, but avoidance during peak solar flux of midday is frequently possible. Protective hats and clothing are practical and highly desirable. Sunscreens of various types have definite utility in reducing UVR damage. Less well established is the potential role of a host of purported preventatives and treatments such as vitamins and...

Incontinential Pigmenti and the NEMO Gene at Xq28

Familial IP (MIM 308310) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder affecting approx 1 in 50,000 newborns. It is characterized by abnormalities of the skin, hair, nails, teeth, eyes, and central nervous system, with a distinctive pattern of hyperpigmentation and dermal scarring (25). Affected males die in utero, whereas affected females have extremely skewed X-inactivation owing to the death of cells carrying the mutation on the active X chromosome. The disorder is caused by defects in the NEMO gene that encodes a regulator of the NF-kB signal pathway (9,26). The gene spans 23 kb and consists of 10 exons. A recurrent 10-kb deletion that removes exons 4-10 accounts for 70-80 of the mutations identified in IP patients (9,26). This deletion is flanked at the ends by two identical 878-bp MER67B repeats (termed int3h repeats), one located within intron 3 of the gene and the other in the 3' flanking region (Fig. 1D1). In most of the de novo cases, the deletion occurred in the paternal germline,...

BARD1BRCA1Associated RING Domain

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, clinically characterized in most patients by growth retardation, radial aplasia (malformation of the thumb and forearms), hyperpigmentation of the skin, kidney malformation, developmental delay, as well as other congenital malformations (92). However, some patients do not have any dysmorphic features or congenital malformations. Aplastic anemia presenting in the first decade of life frequently occurs. The rate of bone marrow failure is estimated to be 90 by age 40 (93). The estimated risks of developing hematological and nonhematological malignancies are 33 and 28 , respectively by age 40 (93). Of interest, FANCD1 and, more recently, FANCN are associated with an increased cancer prone phenotype as compared with other complementation groups. In FANCD1, the average of leukemia is 2.2 years of age as compared with 13.4 years for other complementation groups (94). For FANCD1 patients, the cumulative probability of malignancy is 97...

The Russell Silver Syndrome

Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation and a disproportionately large head, due to a broad and prominent forehead that contrasts with a small, narrow lower portion of the face, giving a triangular appearance. Delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle is characteristic, as are downturned corners of the mouth hemi-hypotrophy of the face, trunk, and limbs clinodactyly brachymesophalangy of the fifth fingers partial cutaneous syndactyly of the second and third toes areas of hypo- or hyperpigmentation of the skin diminished subcutaneous tissue delayed bone maturation and excessive sweating of the forehead (Taussig et al., 1973 Kotzot et al., 1995). Other features may include anteverted nostrils, low set ears, webbing of the neck, dislocation of elbows with difficult supination, single palmar creases, hyperextensibility of joints, shortening of upper limbs, cubitus valgus, slight ptosis, high-pitched squeaky voice, neonatal edema of...

Skin Whitening Products

Skin-whitening products have been widely used in the cosmetic field and clinic therapy. They are supposed to either lighten skin (individuals who wish to change or modify their skin color) or depigment skin (treatment for abnormal-hyperpigmentation skin such as melasma, freckles, and senile lentigines). Whitening agents, such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, and ascorbic acid derivatives have shown efficacy in a variety of hyperpigmentary disorders 1-14 but with varying success 1,2,7-9 . Their mechanism of action has been studied in vitro and in vivo 3,10-17 . Recently, their safety of application have been extensively investigated 18-32 . This chapter includes the most popular active ingredients of whitening agents and emphasizes their efficacy and safety.

Hydroquinone 14dihydroxybenzene

Hydroquinone is a nonvolatile chemical used in the photographic, rubber, chemical, and cosmetic industries. In the late 1930s, it was observed that a chemical used in rubber manufacture, monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, caused depigmented skin in some workers 1 . The efficacy of hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) as a skin-lightening agent has been established in both human and animal studies. The chemical structure of hydro-quinone is shown in Figure 1. Clinically, hydroquinone is applied topically in the treatment of melasma, freckles, and senile lentigines, as well as postinflammatory hyperpigmenta-tion. In the United States, hydroquinone is readily available in concentrations up to 2.0 as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug and by prescription at higher concentrations 1,2 . Thus, hydroquinone is readily applied to the skin for medical and cosmetic reasons 33 . Arndt and Fitzpatrick 4 , in a non-placebo-controlled study, compared the efficacy of 2 and 5 hydroquinone cream for...

Initial Medical Management

It is very important to review medication side effects with patients prior to beginning therapy. Iris color change, periorbital hyperpigmentation, and hyper-trichosis are unique to the prostaglandin class of drugs.64-66 Periorbital hyper-pigmentation and hypertrichosis may improve with medication stoppage. There is a tendency for less conjunctival hyperemia with latanoprost.60 Some patients who do not respond to latanoprost have shown an IOP lowering when switched to bimatoprost 67 therefore, if there is not an initial response to one prostaglandin agent, changing medication within this class may be a reasonable next step.

Pathological Conditions

Melanocytic naevi (moles) most Caucasians have several benign moles or naevi on their body, the number relating to sun exposure and to the age of the patient. Naevi vary both in size and colour. They may be the patient's skin tone, white or red through to shades of brown to blue black in colour. Melanocytic naevi are removed for various reasons. They may have changed in appearance or develop symptoms suspicious clinically of malignant change requiring excision for histological examination. Naevi are also removed for cosmetic reasons, because they are being traumatised, occur at a hidden site on the body or constitute a newly formed naevus in an adult. There is a variety of histological types of benign naevi that are dependent on microscopic examination for correct diagnosis.

Clinical Manifestations

The macules can be present at birth or arise early in life. The cutaneous lesions can fade with time, but the mucosal hyperpigmentation remains. The hyperpigmented macules in PJS can be distinguished from freckles by their mucosal involvement and the fact that they are commonly present at birth. The mucocutaneous lesions in PJS precede the gastrointestinal manifestations. The median time to presentation with polyps is 11 years of age, but the age of onset varies greatly. There are reported cases of patients presenting with polyposis at birth, but this is very rare. Extraintestinal polyposis may develop and can involve the nares, pelvis, bladder, and lungs. Although the rate of neoplastic potential of the intestinal lesions is low, 48 of patients with PJS have been reported to develop intestinal and extraintestinal malignancies that include neoplasms of the colon, esophagus, rectum, stomach, small intestine, breast, pancreas, ovaries, cervix, testicles, and...

Enhances Dermal Wound Healing

Chloasma Chloasma is a condition characterised by hyperpigmentation and is generally considered recalcitrant to treatment. Proathocyanidin-rich GSE successfully reduced hyperpigmentation in women with chloasma after 6 months of oral treatment according to an open study involving 12 subjects (Yamakoshi et al 2004). The study continued for another 6 months but failed to find an additional improvement with further use. The researchers suggested that a preventative effect may be possible with long-term oral GSE when used in the months prior to summer.

Maternal UPD7 Cases in the Russel Silver Syndrome

Individuals with RSS show intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation plus some of the following signs prominent forehead (with late closure of anterior fontanelle), triangular face, downturned corners of the mouth, faciotruncular and limb asymmetry, 5th finger brachymesophalangy and clinodactyly, cutaneous syndactyly of toes 2 and 3, areas of hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the skin, genital hypoplasia in males, decreased subcutaneous tissue, delayed bone age, and excessive sweating. Intelligence is usually within the normal range.

Natural Selection Determined Skin Color in Humans

Selection can occur on Mendelian, or single-gene, traits, but also on traits determined by many genes, since selection acts on the pheno-type, as we have seen in the case of goats, lions, and four-o'clock plants. An example of a trait determined by many genes is skin color in humans. Natural selection for or against skin pigmentation is well understood and took place tens of thousands of years ago as modern humans left Africa to colonize the rest of the planet. People from tropical areas with high exposure to the sun are darker in order to protect themselves from the dangers of ultraviolet rays. But ultraviolet rays also serve a necessary function by helping chemicals present in the skin to convert to vitamin D. People with dark skin still make enough vitamin D because high sunlight intensity in the areas in which they live compensates for lower efficiency due to skin pigmentation. On the contrary, individuals from higher latitudes and areas with greater cloud cover have extremely...

Signs symptoms and diagnosis

When KS resolves, either spontaneously or following therapy, it often leaves gray-brown to light brown hyperpigmentation for months to years (post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation), caused by hemosiderin deposits from extravasated erythro-cytes. The accompanying lymphedema can also persist for a similar length of time, particularly on the lower legs.

Multiple sclerosis

Given this, it might be expected that in any particular location, dark-skinned people would have higher rates of MS than light-skinned people. For a given level of UVR exposure, individuals with darkly pigmented skin are indeed more prone to developing vitamin D deficiency (Holick, 1994), yet White populations generally have higher rates of MS. For example, in the USA, the MS prevalence in African-Americans is half that of white Americans (Hogencamp et al., 1997). The reasons for this apparent anomaly are not clear. Perhaps people with darker skin have other, compensatory, immunological characteristics which counter the effect of vitamin D deficiency on immunologic regulation. If so, this would be another example, as for diabetes discussed earlier, of different genetically based mechanisms having evolved in different environments, and these genetic differences in turn moderating the influence of the environment on disease risk. It is also likely that in mixed-race societies there are...


Genes which determine skin colour are clear candidates for modifying the effect of UV exposure with respect to melanoma risk. While these genetic determinants are not known precisely, it is known that darker skin has larger amounts of melanin than pale skin, rather than more melanocytes

Active Ingredient

Melanin is a key factor determining the color of skin. The enzyme tyrosinase plays the most important role in melanin synthesis (melanogenesis) 1,2 . Several tyrosinase inhibitors (chemicals, plant extracts, animal products) have been proposed, based on the view that melanogenesis can be controlled and skin-whitening products developed if tyrosinase activity can be suppressed. However, few have been put to practical use. In practice, it is difficult to develop these candidate materials from in vitro studies to approval for human use, even if inhibitory effects on mushroom-derived tyrosinase or pigment cells can be identified. In addition to showing adequate efficacy and safety, there are many problems to consider, such as stability of the products, production and marketing costs, and perception of the user.

Effect On Human Skin

Thus, EA can prevent the buildup of skin pigmentation after sunburn. It can also be expected to improve the appearance of pigmented skin such as melasma or freckles, for such skin pigmentation is believed to follow similar mechanisms to that of sunburn, at least from the viewpoint of epidermic disorders, even if the mechanism of melasma and so on are not precisely clear. Many impressions that skin pigmentation appears to be lightened have been gathered from users of products containing EA. In practice, the characteristics of melasma, postinflammatory pigmentation, and other conditions appear to be improved by this application. EA is a promising skin-whitening active ingredient.

Topical Reactions

A 38-year-old woman developed a garlic burn after applying a poultice made from fresh, uncooked garlic to her breast for treatment of a self-diagnosed Candida infection secondary to breastfeeding her 6-month-old son (101). Despite a burning sensation upon application, she left the poultice in place for 2 days. The infant continued to feed with no apparent adverse effects. She presented to the emergency room 2 days after removal of the poultice. Physical exam revealed that the area where the poultice had been applied appeared as a burn with skin loss, ulceration, crusting, hyperpigmentation, granulation tissue, serous discharge, minor bleeding, and erythema on the periphery. The area was tender. The patient was treated with 1 silver sulfadiazine cream.

Down Syndrome

Adults with DS show a variety of age-related changes in physical and functional capacities suggestive of premature or accelerated aging (Martin, 1978), including changes in skin tone, hypogonadism, increased frequency of cataracts, increased frequency of hearing loss, hypothyroidism, seizures,

Kojic Acid

Kojic acid, a fungal metabolic product, is increasingly being used as a skin-lightening agent in skincare products marketed in Japan since 1988. It was first isolated from Aspergillus in 1907 31 . The structure is shown in Figure 1. The mode of action of kojic acid is to suppress free tyrosinase, mainly attributable to chelation of its copper 11,16,31 , and it has been shown to be responsible for therapy and prevention of pigmentation, both in vitro and in vivo 11,31 . In Japan it is used in nonprescription skincare products up to a concentration of 1 . To increase percutaneous absorption and thus therapeutic activity, it is usually used at the highest concentration allowed 31 . Because it is used intensively in foods (e.g., bean paste, soy, and sake) in some countries, particularly Japan, its oral safety has been studied. Shibuya et al. 28 , investigating the mutagenicity of kojic acid by the Ames test, forward mutation test in cultured Chinese hamster cells, and dominant lethal test...

Skin Color

Origin and distribution Melanin is the black or brown pigment that is responsible for the color of the skin, hair, and local variation in pigmentation. It is produced only by the melanocytes. Melanocytes derive embry-ologically from melanoblasts. They migrate from the inner neural crest to the dermoepidermal junction. Mature melanocytes are essentially confined to the basal layers of the epidermis. In dark-skinned ethnic groups, pigment activity can be observed from the fourth fetal month.


Commonality of specific mutations among patients with GISTs and their family members has been reported. One report described 2 siblings with cutaneous hyperpigmentation since their late teens who developed multiple GISTs by 45 years of age. These tumors were Kit and CD34 positive and encoded a mutation at codon 559 of exon 11. The same point mutation was found in peripheral leukocytes obtained from the patients' older sister, younger sister, and younger sister's 2 children (Maeyama et al, 2001).


Hg is a well-known inductor of allergic contact dermatitis, which was first recognized at the end of the 19th century (Boyd et al., 2000). Heavy proteinuria, usually a nephrotic syndrome, has been described during Hg exposure since the 19th century. In modern times, Kazantzis et al. (1962) described four cases of occupa-tionally mercury-exposed workers with a nephrotic syndrome among a cohort of similarly exposed individuals. Stewart et al. (1977) described proteinuria in 9 of 21 technicians occupationally exposed to mercury after spillage of corrosive sublimate and with a wide excretion rate of Hg. In these case reports, the heavy proteinuria dominated by albumin suggests a glomerular damage in contrast to the more modest, low-molecular weight proteinuria associated with the tubulotoxic effect of Hg. A number of case reports have described an IC-mediated membranous GN after occupational exposure to Hg, after use of skin-lightening creams and laxatives containing Hg, as well as other...


Several theoretical explanations have been proposed to account for the other-race effect. First, there may be less physiognomic variability between faces of one race and of another race. Because of the supposed fewer differences in features or patterns of variability in features of faces, other-race faces are said to be inherently more difficult to recognize. This hypothesis, that is, 'other-race faces all look alike' has not been supported. Goldstein and Chance (1979) found no significant differences in physiognomic variation among black, white and Japanese faces. Second, because of continuous experience with one's own racial group it is possible that certain features of same-race faces are given particular attention because of their high information value. Thus, as Ellis, Deregowski and Shepherd (1975) showed, whites are more likely to report descriptions of hair colour and texture and the colour of the eyes in describing other whites whereas blacks more frequently mention hair...

Aging of Human Skin

This model predicts the sagging and the thinning of the skin with age, the appearance of wrinkles, and the loss of elastic and rheological properties. This model does not account for the appearance of age spots. It is known that a permanent state of irritation (i.e., with constantly high levels of mediators of irritation such as IL-1) stimulates the production of melanin by the melanocytes. In this case the micro-inflammatory model of skin aging predicts that with time, the skin should undergo a progressive homogeneous darkening. What the model fails to predict is the appearance on specific skin regions, of the so-called age spots, dark regions of less than 0.25 cm2 in sun-exposed areas, the color of which has been suggested to be the consequence of the accumulation of melanin and or lipofuschin. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for the growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF), in the appearance of the signs of aging. As of today, mainly because of the lack of...

Ure 614

Blood Vessels

The epidermis maintains its thickness as the decades pass, but as the cell cycle slows, cells tend to grow larger and more irregular in shape. Skin may appear scaly because, at the microscopic level, more sulfur-sulfur bonds form within keratin molecules. Patches of pigment commonly called age spots or liver spots appear and grow (fig. 6.16). These are sites of oxidation of fats in the secretory cells of apocrine and eccrine glands and reflect formation of oxygen free radicals.

Categories Of Claims

Skin-whitening effect This type of evaluation concerns a cosmetic effect that can be determined by visual, tactile, or olfactive assessment. Examples of scoring scales for the assessment of dry skin have been given by Serup 14 . The evaluator is trained to make such an assessment, reliable and fully independent of the product manufacturer. In some cases, the evaluator will be a dermatologist, an ophthalmologist, or a dentist, but this is not mandatory provided that the evaluator can justify his her qualification. When the test protocol is appropriate, expert evaluations are frequently combined with other assessment methods. Examples of claims easily supported by expert evaluation are skin whitening, antiwrinkle, hair shine, and deodorancy. Safety claims are also appropriate for such an assessment to check the absence of erythema or dryness after product application.

Other Agents

Various systemic drugs and natural products may be used as protective agents, such as chloroquine, indomethacin, vitamin C and E, fish oil, and green tea, etc. Topical agents include azelaic acid and melawhite except where previously described 38 . Recently, Kobayashi et al. 39 reported that neoagarobiose could be useful as a novel whitening agent as it has shown moisturizing and whitening effects with low cytotoxicity. Ando et al. 40 evaluated the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on UV-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin in a placebo (vehicle)-controlled study. Skin hyperpigmentation was induced on the backs of guinea pigs by UVB exposure. Oleic acid, linoleic acid, and a-linolenic acid (0.5 in ethanol), or ethanol alone as a control, were then topically applied daily five times per week for 3 successive weeks. Results suggest that the pigment-lightening effects of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid are, at least in part, attributable to suppression of melanin production by...

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