Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany; Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany;

and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania.

Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany

Dr. Salim Ali

Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India

Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of Münster Münster, Germany

Dr. Renate Angermann Curator, Institute of Zoology, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany

Edward A. Armstrong Cambridge University Cambridge, England

Dr. Peter Ax

Professor, Second Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Göttingen Göttingen, Germany

Dr. Franz Bachmaier

Zoological Collection of the State of

Bavaria

Munich, Germany

Dr. Pedru Banarescu

Academy of the Roumanian Socialist

Republic, Trajan Savulescu Institute of

Biology

Bucharest, Romania

Dr. A. G. Bannikow Professor, Institute of Veterinary Medicine Moscow, Russia

Dr. Hilde Baumgärtner

Zoological Collection of the State of

Bavaria

Munich, Germany C. W. Benson

Department of Zoology, Cambridge

University

Cambridge, England

Dr. Andrew Berger Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Dr. J. Berlioz

National Museum of Natural

History

Paris, France

Dr. Rudolf Berndt Director, Institute for Population Ecology, Hiligoland Ornithological Station

Braunschweig, Germany Dieter Blume

Instructor of Biology, Freiherr-vom-Stein School Gladenbach, Germany

Dr. Maximilian Boecker Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. Carl-Heinz Brandes Curator and Director, The Aquarium, Overseas Museum Bremen, Germany

Dr. Donald G. Broadley Curator, Umtali Museum Mutare, Zimbabwe

Director; Game, Forest, and Fields Research Station Hartenholm, Germany

Dr. Herbert Bruns

Director, Institute of Zoology and the Protection of Life Schlangenbad, Germany

Hans Bub

Heligoland Ornithological Station Wilhelmshaven, Germany

A. H. Chisholm Sydney, Australia

Herbert Thomas Condon Curator of Birds, South Australian Museum

Adelaide, Australia

Dr. Eberhard Curio Director, Laboratory of Ethology, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany

Dr. Serge Daan

Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Dr. Heinrich Dathe Professor and Director, Animal Park and Zoological Research Station, German Academy of Sciences Berlin, Germany

Dr. Wolfgang Dierl

Zoological Collection of the State of

Bavaria

Munich, Germany

Dr. Fritz Dieterlen Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. Rolf Dircksen Professor, Pedagogical Institute Bielefeld, Germany

Josef Donner Instructor of Biology Katzelsdorf, Austria

Dr. Jean Dorst

Professor, National Museum of Natural History Paris, France

Dr. Gerti Dücker Professor and Chief Curator, Zoological Institute, University of Münster

Münster, Germany

Dr. Michael Dzwillo Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt Professor and Director, Institute of Human Ethology, Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology Percha/Starnberg, Germany

Dr. Martin Eisentraut Professor and Director, Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. Eberhard Ernst Swiss Tropical Institute Basel, Switzerland

R. D. Etchecopar Director, National Museum of Natural History Paris, France

Director, Dominion Museum

Wellington, New Zealand

Dr. Hubert Fechter Curator, Lower Animals, Zoological Collection of the State of Bavaria Munich, Germany

Dr. Walter Fiedler Docent, University of Vienna, and Director, Schönbrunn Zoo Vienna, Austria

Wolfgang Fischer

Inspector of Animals, Animal Park

Berlin, Germany

Dr. C. A. Fleming Geological Survey Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Dr. Hans Frädrich Zoological Garden Berlin, Germany

Dr. Hans-Albrecht Freye Professor and Director, Biological Institute of the Medical School Halle a.d.S., Germany

Günther E. Freytag Former Director, Reptile and Amphibian Collection, Museum of Cultural History in Magdeburg Berlin, Germany

Dr. Herbert Friedmann Director, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Dr. H. Friedrich Professor, Overseas Museum Bremen, Germany

Dr. Jan Frijlink

Zoological Laboratory, University of Amsterdam

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Dr. H. C. Karl Von Frisch Professor Emeritus and former Director, Zoological Institute, University of Munich Munich, Germany

Dr. H. J. Frith C.S.I.R.O. Research Institute Canberra, Australia

Academy of the Roumanian Socialist Republic, Trajan Savulescu Institute of Biology

Bucharest, Romania

Dr. Carl Gans

Professor, Department of Biology, State University of New York at Buffalo

Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. Dr. Rudolf Geigy

Professor and Director, Swiss Tropical Institute

Basel, Switzerland

Dr. Jacques Gery St. Genies, France

Dr. Wolfgang Gewalt Director, Animal Park Duisburg, Germany

Dr. H. C. Viktor Goerttler on

Professor Emeritus, University of Jena ri Jena, Germany ut o s

Dr. Friedrich Goethe t

Director, Institute of Ornithology, t Heligoland Ornithological Station e

Wilhelmshaven, Germany ir s

Dr. Ulrich F. Gruber edi Herpetological Section, Zoological o Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. H. R. Haefelfinger Museum of Natural History Basel, Switzerland

Dr. Theodor Haltenorth Director, Mammalology, Zoological Collection of the State of Bavaria Munich, Germany

Barbara Harrisson

Sarawak Museum, Kuching, Borneo

Dr. Francois Haverschmidt President, High Court (retired) Paramaribo, Suriname

Dr. Heinz Heck

Director, Catskill Game Farm

Dr. Lutz Heck

Professor (retired), and Director, Zoological Garden, Berlin Wiesbaden, Germany

Dr. H. C. Heini Hediger Director, Zoological Garden Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Dietrich Heinemann

Director, Zoological Garden, Münster

Dörnigheim, Germany

Dr. Helmut Hemmer Institute for Physiological Zoology, University of Mainz Mainz, Germany

Dr. W. G. Heptner Professor, Zoological Museum, University of Moscow Moscow, Russia

Dr. Konrad Herter Professor Emeritus and Director (retired), Zoological Institute, Free University of Berlin Berlin, Germany

Dr. Hans Rudolf Heusser Zoological Museum, University of Zurich

Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Emil Otto Höhn Associate Professor of Physiology, University of Alberta Edmonton, Canada

Dr. W. Hohorst

Professor and Director, Parasitological Institute, Farbwerke Hoechst A.G. Frankfurt-Höchst, Germany

Dr. Folkhart Hückinghaus Director, Senckenbergische Anatomy, University of Frankfurt a.M. Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Francois Hüe

National Museum of Natural History Paris, France

Dr. K. Immelmann Professor, Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig Braunschweig, Germany

Dr. Junichiro Itani Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan

Dr. Richard F. Johnston Professor of Zoology, University of Kansas

Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. Otto Jost

Oberstudienrat, Freiherr-vom-Stein

Gymnasium

Fulda, Germany

Dr. Paul Kähsbauer

Curator, Fishes, Museum of Natural

History

Vienna, Austria

Dr. Ludwig Karbe Zoological State Institute and Museum

Hamburg, Germany

Dr. N. N. Kartaschew Docent, Department of Biology, Lomonossow State University Moscow, Russia

Dr. Werner Kästle Oberstudienrat, Gisela Gymnasium Munich, Germany

Dr. Reinhard Kaufmann Field Station of the Tropical Institute, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

Santa Marta, Colombia

Dr. Masao Kawai

Primate Research Institute, Kyoto

University

Kyoto, Japan

Dr. Ernst F. Kilian

Professor, Giessen University and

Catedratico Universidad Australia,

Valdivia-Chile

Giessen, Germany

Dr. Ragnar Kinzelbach Institute for General Zoology, University of Mainz Mainz, Germany

Dr. Heinrich Kirchner Landwirtschaftsrat (retired) Bad Oldesloe, Germany

Dr. Rosl Kirchshofer Zoological Garden, University of Frankfurt a.M. Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Wolfgang Klausewitz Curator, Senckenberg Nature Museum and Research Institute Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Konrad Klemmer Curator, Senckenberg Nature Museum and Research Institute Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Erich Klinghammer Laboratory of Ethology, Purdue University

Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.

Dr. Heinz-Georg Klös

Professor and Director, Zoological

Garden

Berlin, Germany

Ursula Klös Zoological Garden Berlin, Germany

Dr. Otto Koehler Professor Emeritus, Zoological Institute, University of Freiburg Freiburg i. BR., Germany

Dr. Kurt Kolar

Institute of Ethology, Austrian Academy of Sciences Vienna, Austria

State Ornithological Station of BadenWürttemberg Ludwigsburg, Germany

Dr. Adriaan Kortlandt

Zoological Laboratory, University of

Amsterdam

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Dr. Helmut Kraft

Professor and Scientific Councillor,

Medical Animal Clinic, University of

Munich

Munich, Germany

Dr. Helmut Kramer Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. Franz Krapp

Zoological Institute, University of Freiburg

Freiburg, Switzerland Dr. Otto Kraus

Professor, University of Hamburg, and Director, Zoological Institute and Museum

Hamburg, Germany Dr. Hans Krieg

Professor and First Director (retired), Scientific Collections of the State of Bavaria

Munich, Germany

Dr. Heinrich Kühl Federal Research Institute for Fisheries, Cuxhaven Laboratory Cuxhaven, Germany

Dr. Oskar Kuhn Professor, formerly University Halle/Saale Munich, Germany

Dr. Hans Kumerloeve First Director (retired), State Scientific Museum, Vienna Munich, Germany

Dr. Nagamichi Kuroda Yamashina Ornithological Institute, Shibuya-Ku Tokyo, Japan

Dr. Fred Kurt

Zoological Museum of Zurich University, Smithsonian Elephant Survey

Colombo, Ceylon

Dr. Werner Ladiges Professor and Chief Curator, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Leslie Laidlaw

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.

Dr. Ernst M. Lang Director, Zoological Garden Basel, Switzerland

Dr. Theodor Mebs Instructor of Biology Weissenhaus/Ostsee, Germany

Dr. Alfredo Langguth Department of Zoology, Faculty of Humanities and Sciences, University of the Republic Montevideo, Uruguay

Leo Lehtonen Science Writer Helsinki, Finland

Bernd Leisler

Second Zoological Institute, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Dr. Kurt Lillelund Professor and Director, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fishery Sciences, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Gerlof Fokko Mees Curator of Birds, Rijks Museum of Natural History Leiden, The Netherlands

Hermann Meinken Director, Fish Identification Institute, V.D.A.

Bremen, Germany

Dr. Wilhelm Meise Chief Curator, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Joachim Messtorff o

Field Station of the Federal Fisheries S Research Institute O

Bremerhaven, Germany H

R. Liversidge

Alexander MacGregor Memorial Museum

Kimberley, South Africa

Dr. Konrad Lorenz Professor and Director, Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology Seewiesen/Obb., Germany

Dr. Marian Mlynarski T

Professor, Polish Academy of D

Sciences, Institute for Systematic and O

Experimental Zoology N Cracow, Poland

Dr. Walburga Moeller Nature Museum Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Martin Lühmann Federal Research Institute for the Breeding of Small Animals Celle, Germany

Dr. Johannes Lüttschwager Oberstudienrat (retired) Heidelberg, Germany

Dr. Wolfgang Makatsch Bautzen, Germany

Dr. Hubert Markl

Professor and Director, Zoological

Institute, Technical University of

Darmstadt

Darmstadt, Germany

Basil J. Marlow , BSc (Hons) Curator, Australian Museum Sydney, Australia

Dr. H. C. Erna Mohr Curator (retired), Zoological State Institute and Museum Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Karl-Heinz Moll Waren/Müritz, Germany

Dr. Detlev Müller-Using Professor, Institute for Game Management, University of Göttingen Hannoversch-Münden, Germany

Werner Münster Instructor of Biology Ebersbach, Germany

Dr. Joachim Münzing Altona Museum Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Wilbert Neugebauer Wilhelma Zoo

Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, Germany Dr. Ian Newton

Senior Scientific Officer, The Nature

Conservancy

Edinburgh, Scotland

Dr. Jürgen Nicolai

Max Planck Institute for Behavioral

Physiology

Seewiesen/Obb., Germany

Dr. Günther Niethammer Professor, Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. Bernhard Nievergelt Zoological Museum, University of Zurich

Zurich, Switzerland Dr. C. C. Olrog

Institut Miguel Lillo San Miguel de Tucuman

Tucuman, Argentina Alwin Pedersen

Mammal Research and Arctic Explorer Holte, Denmark

Dr. Dieter Stefan Peters Nature Museum and Senckenberg Research Institute Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Nicolaus Peters Scientific Councillor and Docent, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fisheries, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Hans-Günter Petzold Assistant Director, Zoological Garden Berlin, Germany

Dr. Rudolf Piechocki Docent, Zoological Institute, University of Halle Halle a.d.S., Germany

Dr. Ivo Poglayen-Neuwall Director, Zoological Garden Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.

Dr. Egon Popp

Zoological Collection of the State of Bavaria

Munich, Germany

Dr. H. C. Adolf Portmann Professor Emeritus, Zoological Institute, University of Basel Basel, Switzerland

Hans Psenner

Professor and Director, Alpine Zoo Innsbruck, Austria

Dr. Heinz-Siburd Raethel Oberveterinärrat Berlin, Germany

Professor, Museum of Natural History Basel, Switzerland

Dr. Werner Rathmayer Biology Institute, University of Konstanz

Konstanz, Germany

Walter Reinhard Biologist

Baden-Baden, Germany

Federal Fisheries Research Institute

Bremerhaven, Germany

Dr. Bernhard Rensch Professor Emeritus, Zoological Institute, University of Münster Münster, Germany

Dr. Vernon Reynolds Docent, Department of Sociology, University of Bristol Bristol, England

Dr. Rupert Riedl

Professor, Department of Zoology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Dr. Peter Rietschel Professor (retired), Zoological Institute, University of Frankfurt a.M. Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Siegfried Rietschel Docent, University of Frankfurt; Curator, Nature Museum and Research Institute Senckenberg Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Herbert Ringleben Institute of Ornithology, Heligoland Ornithological Station Wilhelmshaven, Germany

Institute for General Zoology, Ruhr

University

Bochum, Germany

Dr. Peter Röben Academic Councillor, Zoological Institute, Heidelberg University Heidelberg, Germany

Dr. Anton E. M. De Roo Royal Museum of Central Africa Tervuren, South Africa

Dr. Hubert Saint Girons Research Director, Center for National Scientific Research Brunoy (Essonne), France

Dr. Luitfried Von Salvini-Plawen First Zoological Institute, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Dr. Kurt Sanft Oberstudienrat, Diesterweg-Gymnasium Berlin, Germany

Dr. E. G. Franz Sauer Professor, Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany

Dr. Eleonore M. Sauer Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany

Dr. Ernst Schäfer

Curator, State Museum of Lower

Saxony

Hannover, Germany

Dr. Friedrich Schaller Professor and Chairman, First Zoological Institute, University of Vienna

Vienna, Austria

Dr. George B. Schaller Serengeti Research Institute, Michael Grzimek Laboratory Seronera, Tanzania

Dr. Georg Scheer

Chief Curator and Director,

Zoological Institute, State Museum of

Hesse

Darmstadt, Germany

Dr. Christoph Scherpner Zoological Garden Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Herbert Schifter

Bird Collection, Museum of Natural

History

Vienna, Austria

Dr. Marco Schnitter Zoological Museum, Zurich University Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Kurt Schubert

Federal Fisheries Research Institute

Hamburg, Germany

Eugen Schuhmacher

Director, Animals Films, I.U.C.N.

Munich, Germany

Dr. Thomas Schultze-Westrum Zoological Institute, University of Munich

Munich, Germany Dr. Ernst Schut

Professor and Director (retired), State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Germany

Associate Curator, American Museum of Natural History

Dr. Helmut Sick National Museum Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Dr. Alexander F. Skutch Professor of Ornithology, University of Costa Rica

San Isidro del General, Costa Rica

Ellen Thaler-Kottek

Institute of Zoology, University of

Innsbruck

Innsbruck, Austria

Dr. Everhard J. Slijper Professor, Zoological Laboratory, University of Amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Dr. Erich Thenius Professor and Director, Institute of Paleontolgy, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Bertram E. Smythies Curator (retired), Division of Forestry Management, Sarawak-Malaysia Estepona, Spain

Dr. Kenneth E. Stager Chief Curator, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Dr. H. C. Georg H. W. Stein Professor, Curator of Mammals, Institute of Zoology and Zoological Museum, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany

Dr. Joachim Steinbacher Curator, Nature Museum and Senckenberg Research Institute Frankfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Bernard Stonehouse Canterbury University Christchurch, New Zealand

Dr. Richard Zur Strassen Curator, Nature Museum and Senckenberg Research Institute Frandfurt a.M., Germany

Dr. Adelheid Studer-Thiersch Zoological Garden Basel, Switzerland

Dr. Ernst Sutter Museum of Natural History Basel, Switzerland

Dr. Niko Tinbergen Professor of Animal Behavior, Department of Zoology, Oxford University Oxford, England

Alexander Tsurikov Lecturer, University of Munich Munich, Germany

Dr. Wolfgang Villwock Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Zdenek Vogel

Director, Suchdol Herpetological Station

Prague, Czechoslovakia

Dieter Vogt Schorndorf, Germany

Dr. Jiri Volf Zoological Garden Prague, Czechoslovakia

Otto Wadewitz Leipzig, Germany

Dr. Helmut O. Wagner

Director (retired), Overseas Museum,

Bremen

Mexico City, Mexico

Dr. Fritz Walther

Professor, Texas A & M University

College Station, Texas, U.S.A.

Dr. Fritz Terofal

Director, Fish Collection, Zoological Collection of the State of Bavaria Munich, Germany

Dr. G. F. Van Tets Wildlife Research Canberra, Australia

John Warham

Zoology Department, Canterbury University

Christchurch, New Zealand

Dr. Sherwood L. Washburn University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, California, U.S.A.

Eberhard Wawra

First Zoological Institute, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Dr. Ingrid Weigel

Zoological Collection of the State of Bavaria

Munich, Germany

Dr. B. Weischer Institute of Nematode Research, Federal Biological Institute Münster/Westfalen, Germany

Herbert Wendt Author, Natural History Baden-Baden, Germany

Dr. Heinz Wermuth

Chief Curator, State Nature Museum,

Stuttgart

Ludwigsburg, Germany

Dr. Wolfgang Von Westernhagen Preetz/Holstein, Germany

Dr. Alexander Wetmore United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Dr. Dietrich E. Wilcke Röttgen, Germany

Dr. Helmut Wilkens Professor and Director, Institute of Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine

Hannover, Germany

Hans Edmund Wolters Zoological Research Institute and A. Koenig Museum Bonn, Germany

Dr. Arnfrid Wünschmann Research Associate, Zoological Garden Berlin, Germany

Instructor, Wilhelms Gymnasium

Munich, Germany

Dr. Heinz Wundt

Zoological Collection of the State of Bavaria

Munich, Germany

Dr. Claus-Dieter Zander Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Fritz Zumpt Director, Entomology and Parasitology, South African Institute for Medical Research Johannesburg, South Africa

Dr. Richard L. Zusi Curator of Birds, United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

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