Reproductive biology

Bats of the family Emballonuridae usually give birth to a single offspring per year. Exceptions to this rule may be small species like the proboscis bat that reproduce twice each year. Most emballonurid bats show a seasonal pattern of reproduction with females giving birth to their offspring at the beginning of the rainy season. Sperm storage or delayed embryonic development occurs in some Old World members within the family Emballonuridae. The mating system varies by species. Emballonurid bats...

Evolution and systematics

Evolved in South America, this diverse order first appears in the fossil record in the Paleocene, about 60 million years ago (mya). It has two main groups, the Pilosa and the Cin-gulata. The Pilosa contains sloths and anteaters, also known as the hairy xenarthrans, and the Cingulata includes the extinct glyptodonts and armadillos, the animals with bony carapaces. The group name Xenarthra refers to the additional articulations between the lumbar vertebrae, called xe-narthrous processes. These...

Physical characteristics

Characteristics Mammals

The size of living insectivores ranges from a small mouse to a large house cat. Savi's pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus , is believed by many scientists to be the world's smallest living mammal weighing 0.04-0.10 oz 1.2-2.7 g and measuring 1.4-2.1 in 36-53 mm without the tail. The 1998 discovery of a 65 million year old fossil jaw measuring 0.3 in 8 mm and belonging to the extinct Batonodoides, suggests that some prehistoric insectivore mammals were even tinier than some Savi's pygmy shrew. The...

Black flying fox

Pteropus alecto Temminck, 1837, Sulawesi, Indonesia. English Pygmy fruit bat, gray fruit bat. Head and body length 19-28 cm , forearm 6-7.5 in 15-19 cm , wingspan up to 3.3 ft 1 m weight 1.1-2.2 lb 500-1,000 g . The fur on the head is black, the mantle ranges from chocolate brown to reddish brown, and white hairs frequently appear over the body, including the underside. Sulawesi, Salayer Island, Baweam and Kangean islands to the Java Sea, Lombok, Sumba and Savu islands, southern New Guinea,...

Species accounts

Ailurops ursinus Temminck, 1824 , Sulawesi, Indonesia. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Barenkuskus. A large and powerful phalanger up to 22 lb 10 kg , with long limbs and black fur often tipped with yellow. A. u. ursinus lowlands of Sulawesi, Peleng, and some adjacent smaller islands and A. u. togianus Togian Islands. Lowland and mid-elevation rainforest. BEHAVIOR Generally occurs in groups of two to four individuals. It is arboreal, living and feeding in the forest canopy, and may be active at any...

Hypsiprymnodontidae

The one living species is a small, quadrupedally bounding animal with a sparsely haired tail, slender head, and dark chocolate-brown fur the hindfoot has four toes the third premolar is long and serrated sectorial Head and body length, 5.9-10.6 in 15-27 cm tail length 4.7-6.3 in 12-16 cm weight, 12.6-24 oz 360-680 g Musky rat-kangaroo Hypsiprymnodon moschatus . Illustration by John Megahan The Hypsiprimnodontidae are considered to be the most basic group of Macropodoidea, on account of their...