The Ethics Concepts

While some of the contributors to this handbook would disagree, in my view it is better to see the seven concepts in a balanced perspective rather than as a hierarchy. If they are viewed in this way, there is a blending or an integration rather than competition. This in no way does away with the tension between right and responsibility and the positional distance between autonomy and accountability. As we have seen in the contributors' discussions of the issues and dilemmas that emerge when we...

Tanya Fusco Johnson

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook on ethical issues in aging edited by Tanya Fusco Johnson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-313-28726-0 (alk. paper) 1. Aged Care Moral and ethical aspects. 2. Aging Moral and ethical aspects. I. Johnson, Tanya F. HV1451.H35 1999 174'.2 dc21 98-8235 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright 1999 by Tanya Fusco Johnson All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be...

Ethics In Aging

This handbook follows a growing number of writings on ethics in aging, and we are indebted to their authors for the breadth of ethical issues they have addressed and their insights in charting a course for resolution. Many writers, including those who have contributed to this volume, have moved this field of ethics in aging to a higher level of understanding, and we wish to acknowledge their pioneering efforts, especially those of the many who are unnamed. Illustrative of the more well-known...

Recognition Response And Access In Specific Circumstances

Recognizing a mental health problem is critical to obtaining or providing timely and effective responses to the problem. Societal recognition of problems, as previously noted, is also crucial in assuring access to care. Striving, both as individuals practitioners, family members, and elders themselves and as a society, to maximize recognition of genuine problems, provide appropriate access to care, and thus relieve suffering and minimize harm to the elders affected is a pivotal, shared moral...

Racial Mortality Crossover Phenomenon

There is a notable exception to lower life expectancy for African Americans compared to whites 75 to 80 years of age. At this point, a convergence occurs whereby African Americans have more expected years remaining than whites (Wing, Manton, Stallard, Harnes, & Tyroler, 1985 Manton, 1980). We call this the racial mortality crossover phenomenon. There are also racial crossover patterns in death from heart disease and certain types of cancer (National Center for Health Statistics, 1980)....

Analytical Strategies Models And Paradigms

Analytical strategies, models, and paradigms can be used to explore and suggest answers for some of these ethical questions as well as provide a basis for decision making. A number of ethical models or paradigms can be applied to situations involving the provision of care by family members. Some models focus on the consequences of the behavior (teleological theory), while others suggest that consequences alone may not determine the rightness or wrongness of an action (deontological theory)...

Ethics In The Multicultural Multidisciplinara Setting

As the contributors to this handbook point out over and over, we live in a multicultural society. Along with aging being a triumph of the twentieth century, we can also claim credit for great strides in human rights and the respect for persons of differing classes, color, cultures, and creed. In addition, we have recognized the value in seeing the individual in context and with a variety of needs, biological, psychological, social and cultural. The holism in clear. We cannot view an emotional...

Shrinking Of The World

Older individuals tend to use less and less of what can be termed the total environment. This gradual restriction often begins when the person leaves the world of work at retirement. A second point at which there is a reduced level of participation in the outside world occurs when the individual experiences the onset of a chronic illness. Further restrictions are put into play as the individual ages and sensory deficits, such as vision or hearing losses, become more intensified. Such physical...

Ethical Issues And Conflicts For Service Providers

Professional and agency providers of health and human services are expected, as part of their fiduciary or trust relationship (Frankel, 1983) with the older persons they serve, to respect and promote their clients' legal rights. In fulfilling this function, ethical dilemmas are bound to materialize. For descriptive purposes, we shall examine the contexts of guardianship and elder abuse and neglect. Guardianship is a legal relationship, authorized by a state court, between a ward (the person...

Spiritual Needs Of Older Adults Versus Younger Adults

Each developmental stage presents us with unique opportunities and challenges. As children, we are, for the most part, taken care of by adults. Our basic survival needs are met in addition to our need for love and nurture. As we enter into adolescence, we begin to formulate our own belief systems and attempt to separate ourselves from our parents or guardians. Young adulthood has us pursuing our dreams, entering our career paths, and marrying and having children. When middle age approaches, we...

Fear Of Crime

It was true that the neighborhood had changed. Freshly painted houses had been replaced by houses with boarded windows and vacant lots. The corner store was less a hangout for children coming home from school than for young men peddling drugs. Fences were decorated with graffiti, and abandoned cars dotted the streets. Most of the neighbors that George had known so well during his working years had left the city long ago for sprawling suburbs or the rural landscape beyond. Only a few remained,...

Communicative Ethics In Decision Making

''Communicative ethics'' is a systematic method for making ethical decisions. This approach to ethical decision making is described by the German social philosopher Juirgen Habermas 1990 . In recent years, Habermas has used the phrase ''discourse ethics.'' However, we will use communicative ethics because the word conveys a better sense of this process how and what we communicate when we must make ethical decisions in a group setting. Communicative ethics reminds us of the importance of the...