Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! Continue reading...

Bump To Birth Overview


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My Bump To Birth Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable ebook so that purchasers of Bump To Birth can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Incidence Of Parkinsonism

Pathological studies (30,31) show a progressive increase in the rate of incidental Lewy body inclusions with advancing age. These cases are regarded as having preclinical PD. With every decade of life, there is a doubling of incidental Lewy bodies (31). The decline of parkinsonism and PD specifically, in the very old observed in some studies, is attributed to difficulty in ascertaining cases in the presence of comor-bid disorders (18). Age remains the single most important risk factor for parkinsonism. An Italian study noted a 9 increase in risk for every increasing year of age (i.e., a 60-year-old has a 90 greater risk than a 50-year-old), and men had higher risk than women (19). The current lifetime risk of parkinsonism from birth is estimated at 4.4 for men and 3.7 for women (32).

Significance to humans

The first aboriginal settlers of Australia venerated the bandicoot as one of the creators of life. In their spiritual dreamtime stories, they told of Karora, a giant bandicoot who slept in darkness under the earth, until he awoke and gave birth to the first humans from beneath his armpit

Useful Parameters and Landmarks

Measurements of length, weight, and head circumference are standard measurements of a physical examination. These three measurements are the parameters against which all others are compared. They document growth and body proportions. They should be obtained routinely at every visit to a physician in order to be able to assess longitudinal growth and growth relative to an age- and sex-matched standard. Curves of normal standards of growth, weight, and head circumference are included in every text on pediatrics. They usually start from birth and continue until 18 or 20 years of age. In this book, we have chosen the most commonly used standards and taken the liberty, for practicality, of combining some curves. Although the purist may question this process, we do not think it will markedly affect accuracy in most cases, and we hope the easy utilization of having only one curve will encourage regular and complete measurement. We have included geographic data when available, or markedly...

Bleeding Disorders A General Approach

How long are your menstrual periods Have you ever been so anemic you needed to be on iron replacement Did you have excessive bleeding after childbirth or require a transfusion then Patients with inherited bleeding disorders can present anytime from birth until old age. Patients with mild hemophilia or von Willebrand disease may not have worrisome bleeding until their first trauma or surgery. Therefore, the presence of an abnormal aPTT in an older patient should NOT be ignored because they are too old to have hemophilia. Classic hemophilias A and B (factors VIII and IX deficiency) are sex linked so it is important to ask about bleeding in brothers, cousins and uncles. Von Willebrand disease is autosomal dominant but may have variable penetrance. Acquired bleeding disorders will often present suddenly with severe bleeding and newly abnormal coagulation tests. Often these patients have other illnesses, but autoimmune coagulation diseases can suddenly strike any previously healthy person.

Epidemiological Models

The health profile for countries in Africa and Asia during the acute phase of a conflict or war is usually identified by moderate or severe malnutrition, outbreaks of communicable diseases, and often both. Three-fourths of all epidemics of the last decade took place in the context of a CE. Epidemiological indicators show high crude mortality rates and, if disaggregated, expose the vulnerability among the populations as to age (children under 5 years and the elderly) and gender (women and female-headed households). There is a linear relationship between under age 5 childhood mortality (per 1000) and the percentage of nations engaged in armed conflict. The worst conditions and highest mortality rates are recorded among orphaned and unaccompanied children. High case fatality rates were common among malnourished children in Somalia, with measles contributing to between 50 and 81 of deaths. As such, all children in developing countries in conflict should receive measles vaccine and vitamin...

Application Questions And Problems

In sheep, lustrous fleece (L) results from an allele that is dominant over an allele for normal fleece (l). A ewe (adult female) with lustrous fleece is mated with a ram (adult male) with normal fleece. The ewe then gives birth to a single lamb with normal fleece. From this single offspring, is it possible to determine the genotypes of the two parents If so, what are their genotypes If not, why not

Special case Needlestick injury or other occupational HIV exposure

In exposed babies, at least two negative HIV PCR results are required in order to exclude HIV infection the first one between the 1st and the 4th month of life, the second after the 4th month, as only then it reaches its full significance for exclusion (Rossi 1992). In addition, PCR should be performed already during the first month of life (however not within the first days after delivery, as contamination with maternal virus may occur), as the earliest possible diagnosis of a neonatal infection is important to allow Pneumocystis prophylaxis and early antiretroviral therapy in the first months of life. If already this first sample tests positive (and is confirmed), this points to an intrauterine infection (less frequent) in case of perinatal transmission during birth (most common scenario), virus will only be detectable in the samples obtained later. Attention Breastfeeding carries a significant risk of transmission what stated above is only valid if postnatal acquisition of...

Reproductive biology

The polyestrous females are physiologically capable of producing litters at any time of the year, although in some areas rainfall and food availability are limiting factors. Bilbies are polygynous. After mating with a socially dominant male, the female undergoes a gestation of just 14 days, then gives birth to one to three young.

Minority Groups Urban Life And Health

The overall benefit of community resources to all their residents is what Rose (1985) has called a preventive paradox, that is everybody benefits by being exposed to multiple sources of information and services (Rose, 1985). A good example of this paradox is the case of health promotion leading to positive health behaviors, such as physical activity, anti-smoking campaigns, and sexual education among adolescents. People living in urban areas are more likely to be active than those living in rural settings, regardless of their race ethnicity, and as a result less likely to be overweight (Eberhardt, et al., 2001). Cigarette smoking and birth rates among adolescents are lower in urban setting than in rural areas (Eberhardt, et al., 2001). In fact, there is evidence that black adolescents in urban cities have lower rates of smoking than whites and are more likely to initiate later in life (Bachman, et al., 1991 Mcintosh, 1995 Nelson, et al., 1995 Siegfried, 1991). However, not all...

Masoala forkcrowned lemur

There is a tendency towards monogamy, with one adult male and one adult female often occupying a joint territory, but a male may associate with more than one female. Births occur in November-January. Ovarian cycle length about 15 days. Typically gives birth to a single infant. Gestation period unknown.

Hispanic Americans

Hispanic Americans are projected to play an increasing role in American society early on in the 21st century based on demographic growth characteristics. It is widely projected that Hispanic Americans will become the nation's largest minority group by the year 2020 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997), outnumbering the African Americans. The Hispanic population is also projected to form a majority in California's public school enrollment by 2006 (Pinal, 1996). Because of within-group diversity, it is not easy to describe the demographics of Hispanics. As with most ethnic minority labels, there is no single Hispanic population but rather there are, minimally, four distinct subgroups Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Central South Americans. These groups are identified through place of birth or country of origin. High migration rates and relatively high birth rates are among some of the variables that separate Hispanics from other minorities. As Romero (chapter 11,...

Age Distributions And Fertility

Echoed by increases or decreases in birth numbers two or three decades hence. Thus to reverse the decline of an aging population (i.e., one with an age distribution increasingly skewed towards older ages) simply by means of an increasing per capita birth rate becomes increasingly difficult over the short term (i.e., less than several decades). In these circumstances inward migration becomes the major defense against a declining workforce, which, as migrants may well have had different previous experiences of infection to that of the host population, in turn may bring changes to the age distributions of susceptibility and immunity in the combined population and have implications for epidemiology and the design of control programs.

Causes and symptoms

Other neurological factors include lesions to the brain, congenital rubella, undiagnosed and untreated phenylketonuria (PKU), tuberous sclerosis, and Rett's disorder (a related condition in which the baby develops in an apparently normal manner through age five months, and then begins to lose communicative and social interaction skills). There is also evidence of a higher proportion of perinatal complications (complications arising around the time of giving birth) among children with autistic symptoms. These complications include maternal bleeding after the first trimester and meconium in the amniotic fluid. (Meconium is a substance that accumulates in the bowel of the developing fetus and is discharged shortly after birth.) Some evidence suggests that the use of medications during pregnancy may be related to the development of autistic symptoms. As newborns, children with autistic behaviors show a higher rate of respiratory illness and anemia than healthy children.

Tyrercuzick International Breast Cancer Intervention Study

The personal risk factors incorporated into the IBIS model are the ages at menarche, first childbirth and menopause, parity, height, and body mass index, and two diagnoses associated with increased risk, namely atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Both these diagnoses are known to be associated with at least a fourfold increase in risk in the general population (35,36). Some risk factors have not yet been included. These are the administration of exogenous hormones such as the oral contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy and the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ.

Colonization And Succession Of Human Intestinal Microbiota With

One of the characteristic aspects of the GI tract is the presence of numerous endogenous microbes colonizing the surface of the GI tract throughout the life of the host. It consists of a complex community inside the host, known as the intestinal microbiota. In healthy adults, the intestinal microbial cells have been estimated to outnumber the host's somatic and germ cells by a ratio of 10 1 (4). The development of this microbiota is initiated during the birth process. The fetus exists in a sterile environment until birth. After being born, the infant is progressively colonized by bacteria from the mother's vagina and feces and from the environment. As long as nutrients and space are not limited, the commensals with high division rates predominate, e.g., enterobacteria (Escherichia coli) and Enterococcus appear. The succession of microbes in an infant's intestinal tract also depends on the feeding mode. The fecal microbiota of breast-fed babies has been found to be relatively simple,...

Brief Review Of The Intestinal Microbiota

From birth to death, the gut is colonized by a diverse, complex, and dynamic bacterial ecosystem that constitutes the intestinal microbiota. In newborns, it develops sequentially according to the maturation of intestinal mucosa and dietary diversification. In healthy conditions, the human baby's intestine is sterile at birth but, within 48 hours, 108 to 109 bacteria can be found in 1 g of feces (9-11). The bacteria colonizing the baby's intestine come from the environment, where maternal vaginal and fecal microbes represent the most important source of bacterial contamination. However, the infant conducts an initial selection, since, out of all the bacteria present, only the facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus will be able to colonize the intestinal tract, whatever the diet. Conditions under which this initial selection is operated have yet to be fully elucidated. They are related to endogenous factors, such as maturation of intestinal mucosa,...

Activation of the Intestinal Immune System

As in the neonate, the intestinal IgA-secreting cell (IgA-SC) number is much reduced in adult GF mice. Three weeks after bacterial colonization of the intestine, GF mice have an IgA-SC number equivalent to that found in CV mice. In the young, the adult number of IgA-SC is reached at the age of 6 weeks in mice and between 1 and 2 years in babies (7). This important delay might be attributed to the immaturity of the IIS of the newborn and or the suppressive effect of Abs present in the mother's milk. However, it might also be due to the stimulatory effect of the intestinal microbiota that has been established according to a sequential manner from birth to after weaning as described previously. To test the later hypothesis, several models of adult gnotobiotic mice were colonized by the entire digestive microbiota obtained from growing CV mice from one day after birth to 25 days of age (i.e., 6 days after weaning 62). In these experimental adult models, the effect of maternal milk, and...

Regulation of the Immune Responses

Recently, in their experimental conditions, Sudo and coworkers (84) showed that in OVA-fed mice, the GF state does not allow suppression of the systemic anti-OVA IgE response in serum in contrast to what is observed with CV mice. Colonization of the intestinal tract by a strain of Bifidobacterium infantis restored the suppression but only when the strain colonized the intestinal tract of the mouse from birth. The importance of the presence of intestinal bacteria from birth in the optimization of the immune processes has also been suggested in a more recent study (60).

Ontogeny and development

Mammalian ontogeny and development can, from a physiological standpoint, be separated into three general strategies. First, the monotremes such as platypus and echidnas are oviparous, meaning that they conceive young via copulation, but give birth to young inside an eggshell. After a short period of development in the egg, young hatch and then suckle the mother's milk as it leaks into the fur and not through a nipple as monotremes do not have nipples. In contrast, marsupials and placental mammals are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young. But their respective strategies differ, especially with regards to level of development of the young at birth. Marsupials give birth to live young, but they have a short gestation and produce young that are extremely altricial, i.e., very early in their development stage. Marsupial offspring are born blind and naked, and with underdeveloped organs except for a pair of extremely well-developed and strong front limbs. The young are also...

Development Of Gi Tract Normal Microbiota In Humans

The fetus in utero is sterile until birth. Colonization of the human body with a heterogenous collection of microorganisms from the birth canal begins at delivery. The Lactobacillus species constitute the major population of the vaginal microbiota and thus provide the initial inoculum to the infant during birth. In the case of caesarean section or premature infants, most microbes that are transferred to the newborn can be traced from the environment, i.e., from other infants via the air, equipment and nursing staff (19). Therefore, the type of delivery (passage through the birth canal versus caesarean section) as well as the type of diet (breast versus formula feeding) might affect the pattern of microbial colonization.

Cognitive Development

Piaget conceptualized human cognition as developing in a sequence of four successive stages sensorimotor (from birth to 2 years), preoperational (from 2 to 6 years), concrete operations (from 7 to 11 years), and formal operations (from 11 to 15 years). Cognitive development begins with the assimilation of environmental experiences and accommodating (adapting) one's behavior and mental representations of those experiences (schemas).

Peculiar mechanism Reproduction in armadillos

Nine-banded armadillos have unusual delayed implantation. Armadillos breed in June, July or August, and the only fertilized egg becomes a blastocyst after 5-7 days at which point it enters the uterus. Development then ceases and the blastocyst remains free-floating in the uterus until November or December when it implants, and then the zygote divides twice to form four identical embryos. After 5 months of gestation, four identical quadruplets are born usually in May. Although identical twins are known to occur in humans, nine-banded armadillos regularly have identical offspring, most often four of them. But the mystery does not end there a captive female held in solitary confinement gave birth to a litter of four females 24 months after her capture, or 32 months after she could have mated in the wild Although the mechanism is not clearly understood, either her implantation delay lasted 23-24 months, or this particular female had produced two eggs, one of which would have remained...

Trajectories of Population Aging

From the perspective of the early 21st century one can see an amazing revolution of demographic behavior that began slowly in Europe in the 18th century and accelerated around the world in the 20th century. All populations before the demographic transition, as the revolution is generally called, had to contend with high death rates. When half or fewer of all babies survived to adulthood, fertility was necessarily high or a population would not survive. Under these conditions of high fertility and high mortality, all populations were young by contemporary standards, with no more than 3 or 4 of any population being over age 65 years. Without entering into the discussion (and debates) about the causal mechanisms involved (Casterline 2003 Chesnais 1992), the basic description of what happened can be simply noted. Death rates and birth rates in Europe, North America, and Australia declined drastically between 1850 and 2000. During this transition, populations in these areas grew...

Personality Development and Disorders

Personality is the sum total of all the qualities, traits, and behaviors that characterize a person's individuality and by which, together with his or her physical attributes, the person is recognized as unique. As witnessed by the persistence of temperament or psychological reaction patterns from birth to adulthood, heredity plays an important role in shaping personality Active, outgoing children and passive, inhibited children tend to retain those same characteristics in adulthood. This does not mean that the roles of environment and experience are not as important as heredity in shaping personality. The society and culture into which a child is born interact with his or her genetic predispositions in determining the kind of person the child becomes, that is, how those predispositions are molded and expressed. Like the cognitive abilities discussed in Chapter 4 and, in fact, all human characteristics, personality is the product of the dynamic interaction between genetic makeup and...

Modifiers Of Penetrance And Breast Cancer Genes Other Than Brca

Several studies have noted an increased penetrance for BRCA1 2 in more recent birth cohorts. The NYBCS (9) confirmed Narod's earlier observation of a significant increase in breast cancer risk by the age of 50 years in birth cohorts after 1940 (67 after 1940, 24 before 1940) (39). Ovarian cancer risk did not differ by birth cohort. This increase in incidence for BRCA1 2 mutation carriers parallels an increase in breast cancer in the general U.S. population over that period (37). Antoniou et al. (61) analyzed the results of 22 studies in which cases were unselected for family history. The RR for breast cancer among BRCA1 2 mutation carriers in the post-1960 birth cohorts was two to three times the RR in the preceding four decades. A study of Austrian BRCA1 mutation-positive women found that those from birth cohorts after 1958 had a significantly higher incidence of breast cancer by 40 years of age than those from earlier birth cohorts 46 versus 27 , respectively (89). Finally,...

Physical characteristics

Females of this species are typically a reddish orange or tan marked with brown or black, regardless of geographic locale. Determining the sex of species in the genera Brookesia and Rhampholeon depends primarily on the presence of a bulge at the base of the tail created by paired sexual organs called hemipenes. It is much more difficult to ascertain the sex of juveniles of most species from birth to about six months of age, or whenever the first indication of adult coloration, horns, crests, or a hemipenial bulge becomes apparent.

Antiretroviral agents in pregnancy

In perinatal prevention, nevirapine was employed successfully, particularly in combination with AZT. Perinatal single and two-dose prophylaxis has resulted in the development of drug resistance (Jackson 2000). Toxic liver injury has been described, particularly in the first 18 weeks of longer treatment regimens, especially if the CD4 cell count is more than 250 mm3. Therefore frequent controls of efficacy and potential side effects are vital. If a mother gives birth less than two hours following nevirapine administration, or has not received any prior nevirapine at all, the newborn should receive a dose of nevirapine immediately after birth and a further dose after 48-72 hours (Stringer 2003). Because of embryonic toxicity in the rhesus monkey and also in humans, efavirenz is not used during the first trimester of pregnancy and only after the second in cases without an alternative treatment option and if reliable contraception is practiced after delivery. (CDC 2005). A Swiss research...

The Insulin Like Growth Factor Family

Creases slowly from birth to puberty, surges at puberty, then declines with age.64 In addition to growth hormone, estrogen and other hormones, tamoxifen, and oral contraceptives interact with members of the IGF family and influence IGF expression in breast tissue.64. Animal studies have suggested that dietary factors may induce different patterns of IGF-I transcription, and energy restriction has also been shown to modulate circulating IGF levels. Anthropometric factors, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking have been reported to affect the level of IGF-I, although much of the evidence is weak.64

Explanatory supportive notes for patients and relatives

Depression can follow a severe loss, such as the death of a loved one, a marital separation or financial loss. On the other hand it can develop for no apparent reason, although it may follow an illness such as glandular fever or influenza, an operation or childbirth. Depression is seen more commonly in late adolescence, middle age (both men and women), retirement age and in the elderly.

Legal Attempts To Regulate Biotechnology And Assign Ownership

Rally occurring substance which relaxes the uterus in childbirth, it stated that ' t he European Patent Office is not the right institution to decide on fundamental ethical questions'.9 Faced with a choice between the scientific understanding of DNA as chemicals and the social understanding of DNA as life, the Opposition Division preferred the former (Straus, 1995).

Determining age and sex

Because of compromises between the requirements of bipedalism and the need in modern human females for space in the pelvis to give birth to a large-brained infant. The same dimorphisms, however, might not apply to small-brained early hominins who are not bipedal in the same way that modern humans are their pelves may show a unique pattern of sexual dimorphism.

Procedure A The Pelvic Girdle

I Examine the male and female pelves. Look for major differences between them. Note especially the flare of the iliac bones, the angle of the pubic arch, the distance between the ischial spines and ischial tuberosities, and the curve and width of the sacrum. In what ways are the differences you observed related to the function of the female pelvis as a birth canal

Hereditary Elliptocytosis

The clinical variants under this subheading range from those individuals who are silent carriers to those who are transfusion dependent. Individuals with the silent carrier state of HE are hematologically normal but are known to be related to individuals with HE and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis through family studies. Common HE has two clinical presentations. In mild common HE, 30 to 100 1 of the cells are elliptical and most patients show no clinical symptoms (Fig. 7.4). Some patients may show slight hemolysis with ellipto-cytes and fragmented cells. The more severe variant of common HE, common HE with infantile pyropoikilo-cytosis, shows fragmented and bizarre red cell shapes from birth with a moderate hemolytic component and jaundice. As the patient ages, the disease converts to a mild HE in presentation (Table 7.1).

Methods And Measures

While births are the event to be measured, the concept of an event exposure rate is fundamental to all demographic measurement. The additional key concept needed for rate calculation is the population at risk or person-years of exposure. The essential measurement task is to estimate the risk of a specific event (e.g., a birth, a first birth, a nonmarital birth). The accepted strategy utilizes a ratio of a count of events (births to a specified group) to an estimate of the person-years exposed to the risk of an event in a given time period (Preston, Heuveline, and Guillot 2001). In the year 2000, for instance, a woman who survives the full year contributes a full year at risk of a birth and thus adds one to the denominator of a year 2000 birth rate. There is a range of strategies for estimating years at risk (Preston, Heuveline, and Guillot 2001). Once rates have been estimated, how does one conceptualize social change In general, birth rates can be examined by alternative dimensions...

Mantled howler monkey

Alpha males have higher mating success than other males. Births occur throughout the year, but tend to be concentrated in the dry season in more seasonal habitats. Average birth intervals are just under two years, and gestation is about six mos. Females give birth to their first infants at about four years of age, similar to other species of Alouatta and younger than the other atelidae genera.

Directions For Future Research

Additional analyses exploring the interrelationships between birth outcomes and their main and conjoint effects on infant mortality would seem to hold considerable potential for generating insights into variation in perinatal health. More population-specific studies based on deviations from birth outcome survival optimums are needed, as

Feral cats in Australia

But the debate of more practical consequence is whether feral cats threaten native species such as tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). If viewed as an invasive pest, then feral cats need to be hunted down, poisoned, given birth control, or otherwise controlled. If viewed as beneficial predators helping control other pests such as rabbits, rats, and mice, then feral cats should at least be tolerated.

The Role Of The Enteric Microbiota In The Normal

Underpinning the probiotic concept is the importance of the normal intestinal microbiota in health and disease (12). Establishment of gut microbiota begins within minutes of delivery of the newborn (13,14). During delivery the infant is exposed to bacteria in the birth canal, the environment, maternal fecal microbiota, and other sources (15). The gut is initially colonized by facultative anaerobes such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, possibly due to the absence of anaerobic conditions in the intestine (16). Colonization with bifidobacteria follows, particularly in breast-fed infants, and as the environment becomes more anaerobic, Bacteroides and Clostridia.

Demographic Socioeconomic and Health Characteristics

In terms of other demographics, the Indian and Native population is young, with a median age of 26 years compared to the U.S. median age of 33. More than a quarter (28 ) of the Indian and Native population are children and adolescents, with only 6 aged 65 years or older. In contrast, the 1990 general population was evenly distributed with 13 under 18 and 13 65 or greater (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1995a). These statistics reflect a fertility rate at least twice the general U.S. population as well as significantly higher death rates among certain Indian and Native age groups (Manson et al., 1997). For example, the Indian Native birth rate between 1991 and 1993 was 67 higher than the U.S. all-races rate. About half (45 ) of Indian mothers are under 20 when they have their first child compared to about one-fifth (21 ) in the U.S. White-only population (Indian Health Service IHS , 1997).

Behavior And Reproduction

Their small, white unmarked eggs can vary from dull to glossy and are usually laid in clutches (groups of eggs hatched together) of two to three, sometimes four. The incubation period (length of time needed to sit on eggs and warm them in order to hatch them) is unknown in most species. Both sexes incubate the eggs and only one brood (young birds that are born and raised together) is raised each year. Hatchlings (newly born birds) are born blind and naked, but are still able to crawl to the entrance on their first day of life in order to take food from their parents. The fledgling period (time it takes for feathers to develop in order to fly) is believed to be twenty to thirty days. Young birds remain in their birthing territory for about one year.

Clinical Correlations

Congenital torticollis (wryneck) occurs when the sternocleidomastoid muscle is abnormally shortened causing rotation and tilting of the head. It may be caused by injury to the sternocleidomastoid muscle during childbirth, formation of a hematoma, and eventual fibrosis of the muscle.

Why Do Women Have Orgasms

There have been a number of other explanations offered for why women have orgasms. Some of those explanations are as follows. To the extent that orgasm is an intensely pleasurable sensation, it serves as a reward for the acceptance of the danger of coitus with its possibility of pregnancy and of possible death in childbirth. Orgasm serves as a means for resolving pelvic vasoconges-tion and vaginal tenting, and for inducing lassitude to keep the female horizontal and thereby reducing seminal flowback. Through both psychological (loss of body boundaries and separateness) and physiological (oxytocin release) means, orgasm may enhance pair bonding. Lastly, by its activation of muscular contractions and the concomitant increased blood flow, orgasms maintain the functionality of the genital tract (33).

IRSProtein Signaling in Growth Nutrition and Longevity

In mice, the PI 3-kinase PKB cascade also regulates growth, but the control appears to be parsed between IRS1 and IRS2. Mice lacking IRS1 are about 50 smaller, where IRS2- - mice are nearly normal size however, mice lacking alleles of each gene reveal a role for IRS2 in growth (Fig. 4). Growth curves based on daily weights from birth to 30 days

South African porcupine

Males reach sexual maturity between eight and 18 months, while females reach sexual maturity between nine and 16 months. Because of dangerous quills, females initiate copulation by presenting to males. Estrous cycle is about 35 days, and gestation lasts for a little over three months (93-105 days). Young are born in litters of one to four (usually one to two) normally twice a year, usually within grass-lined chamber in parents' den during wet months of August to March. Average newborn weight is 12.4 oz (351 g), but can range from 10.6-14.1 oz (300-400 g). Young are born relatively well developed, with eyes open and teeth present, quills and spines are soft (most likely to ease birthing process) but quickly harden within two weeks. Young can feed on solids from birth and grow rapidly, reaching full size in about one year. Nursing occurs on average of 101 days (but can range from three to four months) at which point young will weigh 8.8-11 lb (4-5 kg). Females have two to three pairs of...

Demographic Research On The Level Of Inequality

One of the fundamental indicators of inequality in a population is its level of poverty, which is typically measured as the proportion of households whose income falls below some specified poverty threshold (i.e., the poverty rate).30 Because poverty thresholds vary by household size (and, to a lesser extent, composition), Bumpass and Sweet (1981) note that processes of family formation and change can have direct effects on the incidence of poverty. These demographic factors may also have indirect effects via consequent reductions in labor supply or earnings capacities. Households may thus leave or enter poverty as the result of such demographic changes as marital dissolution, aging, retirement, death, childbirth, remarriage, the departure of children from the household, and the formation of new households.

Attention deficit disorder

Attention deficit disorder (hyperkinetic syndrome) is characterized by restlessness, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. It is more common in boys. There is often a history of birth trauma or other cerebral insult in early life. Aggressive behaviour, low intelligence, epilepsy, minor motor abnormalities, and minor EEG changes are sometimes present. Food additives, as in coloured sweets or drinks, may exacerbate the symptoms.

Description Of Social Patterns And Trends

Another part of the social demographic perspective is an appreciation of the significance of long-term population trends and differentials for understanding social change. The careful assembly of long-term trends in marriage, divorce, and remarriage (Cherlin 1992) and birth rates (Rindfuss and Sweet 1977) has provided important sociological insights about the economic and cultural changes in American society that produced the return of tradition'' in the 1950s and the tumultuous social changes of the 1960s and 1970s. The portrayal of cohort trends in educational attainment as the product of a series of continuation ratios from one grade level to the next is elegant and also a model that explains'' how the American educational system has changed over the 20th century (Duncan 1968 640 Mare 1995). One of the most famous articles in social demography Samuel Preston's (1984) comparison of diverging trends in the welfare of children and the elderly in the United States was prescient in its...

Identification And Definition

Although both triceps skinfold measures and BMI are correlated with morbidity (3,23), BMI is easier to use as an initial screening tool. BMI and weight-for-height also predict the persistence of obesity into adulthood (10,11). Thus, given all their attributes, the use of BMI (10,11,25,31) for children ages 2-20 years or weight-for-height (25,26,32) for those ages from birth to 5 years appears well suited to estimating the risks for chronic diseases, persistent obesity, or other long-term sequelae of childhood overweight.

The Nature Of Stressful Life Events And Disasters

This section deals with distinctions that have been applied to characteristics of life events and disasters. Objective characteristics of a stressful encounter inuence the way people appraise them cognitively as challenges, threat, harm, or loss. Severity, duration, and ambiguity of a stressor, among other characteristics, make a difference when it comes to appraisal, emotions, coping, and outcomes. Loss of loved ones, academic failure, injury, job loss, divorce, and disasters that affect an entire community can be categorized along a number of dimensions, including predictability, controllability, suddenness, and strength of impact, and so on. A common distinction is the one between normative and nonnormative events. Normative refers to anticipating a certain class of events that naturally happen to many individuals at certain times during their lives and are expected, for example, school transitions, marriage, childbirth, academic exams, retirement, death of parents, and others. In...

Conventional Techniques for Skeletal Determinations

Greulich And Pyle Atlas

In the evaluation of physical development in children, variations in maturation rate are poorly described by chronological age. Thus, for many decades, scientists have sought better techniques to assess the degree of development from birth to full maturity. Measures of height, weight, and body mass, although closely related to biological maturation, are not sufficiently accurate due to the wide variations in body size. Similarly, the large varia Skeletal age, or bone age, the most common measure for biological maturation of the growing human, derives from the examination of successive stages of skeletal development, as viewed in hand-wrist radiographs. This technique, used by pediatricians, orthopedic surgeons, physical anthropologists and all those interested in the study of human growth, is currently the only available indicator of development that spans the entire growth period, from birth to maturity. Essentially, the degree of skeletal maturity depends on two features growth of...

Special Sensory Assessment

Assessment of the special senses allows for evaluation of cranial nerve function as well as normal structure and function of the eyes, ears, and brain. In some cases, a known phenotype for a specific transgene is the loss of visual or auditory acuity early in the life span. In others, a slight change in brain and cranial nerve structure or in development can have large affects on the ability of the genetically engineered mouse to hear and see normally from birth. Detection of changes in these special senses will provide a broader phenotype, especially as related to aging and degeneration studies.

Placenta Amniotic Fluid and Umbilical Cord

Chorion Monozygotic Twins

Afterbirth appearance of the placenta Figure 5-2. Arrangement of the placenta, chorion, and amniotic sac of (A) dizygotic twins and 35 of monozygotic twins and (B) 65 of monozygotic twins. In general, dizygotic twins can be distinguished from monozygotic twins by an inspection of the afterbirth. However, please note that in approximately 35 of cases the determination will be in error. Figure 5-2. Arrangement of the placenta, chorion, and amniotic sac of (A) dizygotic twins and 35 of monozygotic twins and (B) 65 of monozygotic twins. In general, dizygotic twins can be distinguished from monozygotic twins by an inspection of the afterbirth. However, please note that in approximately 35 of cases the determination will be in error.

Lessons from maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY

Glucokinase gene are a modest rise in glucose levels, present from birth and stable with age. Since there is generally an excellent clinical response to dietary modification alone, complications are rare. In contrast, transcription-factor MODY is more severe, progressive with age, typically requires pharmacological intervention, and if inadequately treated, leads to complications. Furthermore, recent evidence from a randomised controlled trial has confirmed anecdotal evidence that individuals with HNF-1a mutations are acutely sensitive to the hypoglycaemic effects of sulphonylureas. This represents the first example of pharmacogenetics in diabetes care (Pearson etal., 2003).

What Does A Vaginal Cyst Look Like

Vaginal Cyst

The vagina extends from the cervix to the vestibule. It is the longest part of the birth canal. The degree to which it can distend during childbirth is limited by the ischial spines and sacrospinous ligaments. It forms a recess around the cervix called the fornix. The fornix is divided into three regions

Trident leafnosed bat

Available evidence suggests that females are pregnant in the spring and give birth to a single young in early summer. Gestation time is estimated at 9-10 weeks, and the young nurse for 40 days after birth, after which they become independent. The time of mating is unknown. Most likely polygynous.

Dynamic Brain Atlases

Current atlases of fetal development 29,73 use collections of labeled data from multiple imaging modalities to characterize specific developmental stages. The first comprehensive MRI atlas of pediatric cranial anatomy 86 incorporates 180 MRI scans acquired parallel to the orbito-meatal anatomical plane, and 360 explanatory diagrams depicting functional neuroanatomy from birth through 16 years of age. In this collection, 3D horizontal and sagittal images facilitate identification of sulci and gyri. However, stereotaxic coordinate systems were not applied to the atlas data because of difficulties in using them to reference embryonic and pediatric data. In the spirit of the deformable atlas methods described earlier, extreme deformations could be imposed to fit all stages of development into a standardized atlas, but this would hardly meet the primary requirement of atlasing, which is to provide a natural coordinate framework in which to localize and classify structures present in...

Geoffroys tailless bat

Monestrous babies are born late in the year, during or just before the dry season, on Trinidad. Laboratory studies show that the seasonal male testicular cycle follows an endogenous rhythm that is not regulated by photoperiod. Mating system unknown but likely involves some form of polygyny since bats roost in small clusters in their roosts. Females form maternity roosts separate from males prior to giving birth. Young grow rapidly and are weaned by five to six weeks of age.

Sebas shorttailed bat

Polyestrous females give birth to a single young twice a year (March-April and July-August in Central America) gestation period is about four months. Degree of synchrony of births is relatively low within populations. Mating system involves harem-polygyny with single males defending groups of up to about 20 females. Most adult males in a roost are bachelors. Sexes usually do not segregate during the maternity period.

Parnells moustached bat

Females bear a single young annually after a gestation period of about 50 days. The young are naked and helpless at birth. The timing of reproduction varies across the species' range, with births usually peaking around the start of the rainy season. For example, if mating occurs in autumn, the sperm is typically stored by females throughout hibernation, sometimes up to seven months, in the uterus. Within a few days of leaving their winter shelter, females ovulate one egg, and sperm are released. Fertilization and implantation then take place shortly afterwards. Typically, females of a population form a maternity colony at a site different than the hibernation site where breeding occurred. Gestation usually lasts from 40 to 50 days and results in a single offspring, usually in the late spring. Birth is a rather uneasy process hanging inverted, mothers grab the newborn as it emerges from the birth canal and the newborn in turn grabs the abdominal fur of the mother with its hind feet,...

Clinical Aspects

There is good evidence that PGs participate in various aspects of the ovarian cycle. In particular, PGF2a has been implicated as one of the factors effective in causing terminal contractions on the uterine myometrium. The levels of PGF2a in amniotic fluid align with the progress of labor during the birth process. Administered PG in

The United States constitutional right of privacy

In this way the Court ruled the Connecticut statute unconstitutional and in doing so gave birth to the Constitutional Right to Privacy.171 It is important to note that at this stage in its development the right was concerned with family life and its protection.172 It was, however, soon extended to 'individual' rights and beyond, in cases such as Eisenstadt v. Baird173 (in which prohibitions on contraceptive use by single persons

Disorders Of The Extraocular Muscles

At times, certain extraocular muscles mechanically restrict eye movements from birth, for example, in the congenital fibrosis syndrome (Fig. 5-13) or congenital Brown's syndrome. Acquired disorders such as trauma, dysthyroid myopathy, acquired Brown's syndrome, and orbital myositis may all cause weakness or restriction of extraocular muscles. Although investigation of these disorders requires careful attention to the history and systemic health of the child as well as local ocular and orbital signs, such advertence is frequently rewarded.

Imprinting Mutations And Smallest Region Of Overlap Pwssro In Pat 15 Deletions

Such patients, however, show a PWS pattern of methylation of 15q11-q13 loci after hybridization with specific probes (maternal only type imprint). Some of the patients have been found to have small deletions that span the so-called imprinting center (IC). Actually, the region important for imprinting has been defined as the smallest region of overlap (PWS-SRO) among the deletions in the rare PWS patients. The PWS-SRO has been defined as a region of only 4 kb by the analysis of seven microdeletions, the size of which ranges from 6-200 kb (Buiting et al., 1995). This region includes exon 1 and the CpG island promoter of the SNRPN gene (Nicholls et al., 1998). One of these deletions was silently transmitted from the proband's grandmother to a son who fathered a PWS child, or from the proband's grandfather through a daughter who gave birth to an AS offspring (Buiting et al., 1995). The IC molecular lesion appears to result in a failure to reset the imprint of...

Longlived Monkeys Have Life Spans Proportional To Human Centenarians

Post-reproduction expected from primate patterns. Hammer and Foley (1996) use body and raw brain volume estimates from fossil crania to predict early hominid longevity using a multivariate regression of log body weight and brain volume. Estimates based on regressions ofanthropoid primate subfamilies, or limited to extant apes, indicate a major increase in longevity between Homo habilis (52 to 56 years) and H. erectus (60 to 63 years), occurring roughly 1.7 to 2 million years ago. Their predicted life span for small-bodied H. sapiens is 66 to 72 years. From a catarrhine (Old World monkeys and apes) comparison group, Judge and Carey (2000) predict 91 years when contemporary human data are excluded from the equation. For early hominids to live as long or longer than predicted was probably extremely rare the important point is that the basic Old World primate design resulted in an organism with the potential to survive longer than a contemporary mother's ability to give birth. Notably,...

Methodological Issues

The analytical approach adopted by the Narod et al. group has matched affected carriers to unaffected carriers on potential confounders such as age, year of birth, and gene in which the mutation occurs (ignoring familial relationships), and applied conditional logistic regression to matched sets. Apart from being subject to the potential biases mentioned above, this matching approach has resulted in up to 40 of carriers being excluded from the analyses because of the lack of an appropriate match (12), and this may introduce an additional bias. Nevertheless, theirs is currently the largest sample set and represents the largest geographic spectrum. The BCFR-led consortium has not used this matching approach, but has instead applied unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for family history and other potential confounders. The degree to which this approach adequately deals with ascertainment bias depends on how well the family history variable used acts as a surrogate for the...

Lactation and Milk Output

In the cow, milk production increases in the first 3-6 weeks of lactation and then slowly declines. A similar pattern is seen in goats, sheep, and pigs. Milk secretion continues as long as milk is regularly withdrawn, although production declines during lactation. Dairy animals are capable of undergoing estrus and pregnancy while maintaining their lactation. This enables dairy management to breed the animal such that it will give birth and begin lactation on a yearly basis. In order to maximize production, the animals are allowed to lactate until 2 months before they are due to give birth. They are then dried off by cessation of milking. The 2-month rest before the restart of lactation allows the animal to rebuild her energy reserves for the coming birth and lactation. Following birth of the progeny, the animal once again begins the yearly lactation cycle. In all species, yield and energy content are related to body size.

Stable Population Theory And Its Extensions

The renewal equation and stable growth. The continuous single-sex model of population dynamics is expressed as an integral equation. To obtain B(t), the number of female births at time t, women aged x to x + dx at time t ''at risk'' of childbirth are the survivors of those born x years ago. Denote the number of females born x years ago by B(t x) and the life table survival probability (for surviving from birth to age x) byp(x). Then this quantity is B(t x)p(x)dx, where x < t. At time t, these women give birth to

The Two Stage Clonal Expansion Model

Emissions from Coke Ovens and Lung Cancer. Emissions from coke ovens contain a complex mixture of PAH and have been associated with lung cancer in occupational cohort studies of coke oven workers. Both the United States Environmental Agency (USEPA 32 ) and the IARC 33 have determined that coke oven emissions are human carcinogens. In 1984, the USEPA used a simple version of the multistage model to analyze the then available epidemio-logical data on cohorts of U.S. steel workers and estimated that the unit risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to coke oven emissions was 6.2 x 10-4. Here unit risk was defined as the excess probability of lung cancer at age 70 associated with continuous exposure to 1 g m3 from birth. The EPA risk assessment was based on follow-up of the cohorts through 1966. Moreover, the EPA had exposure information only on broad cumulative exposure categories from unpublished tables compiled by Lamd. Since the EPA risk assessment, follow-up of the cohorts has...

Northern elephant seal

Males are polygynous and in most areas defend harems or large groups of densely packed females. Mating occurs on land and females often mate with males other than the harem master as they leave for sea. Males produce sperm about five years of age but do not become successful breeders until 10 to 12 years. Successful males may only breed for two to four years before they are displaced. Females give birth for the first time from three to seven years of age. They give birth to a single young annually. Lactation is about 27 days and females produce a milk averaging 54 fat.

Suckling as a defining feature

Patterns of reproduction are truly fundamental to mammal biology. This is at once apparent from the word mammal itself. In all species of the class Mammalia (monotremes, marsupials, and placentals), females suckle their offspring, and almost all of them have teats (mammae) to deliver the products gathered from the milk-generating glands. As defining features of the class Mammalia, mammary glands and milk production (lactation) are clearly central to mammalian evolution. Indeed, these features undoubtedly appeared at an earlier stage than the birth of live offspring (vivipary). Whereas marsupials and placentals give birth to live offspring after a period of development within the mother's body, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas) still lay large, yolk-rich eggs. Although the milk-generating glands of monotremes release their products through milk patches in the pouch rather than through a small number of teats, suckling of the offspring is clearly evident. Hence, suckling occurs in...

Problems with Defecation

Anterior Rectocele

Samantha Pamper (68) has come to the department with a problem she does not really want to brag about She has been stool incontinent for a few years and needs diapers when she leaves her home. She has given birth to three children and is grossly overweight. Her social life has suffered quite a bit. Finally she has found a female surgeon she trusts who specializes in incontinence and other rectoanal problems. For proper preoperative planning the surgeon needs to have functional information about the defecation process she has ordered a defecography for Mrs. Pamper. Llewellyn is the specialist for this type of problem in the radiology department he has all the utensils for it stowed away in a little cabinet a camping toilet made of plastic and a large ruler with lead markings. He fixes the toilet to the footstand of the fluoroscopy unit and elevates it to a comfortable sitting position. After the rectal examination he cautiously introduces a large-lumen tube into Mrs. Pamper's rectum...

Monogenic hypercholesterolemias

Cetp Pcsk9

Hypercholesterolemia (Goldstein et al., 2001). The disease is caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) and so far nearly 900 mutations have been identified ( fh). In FH homozygotes serum levels of LDL cholesterol are very high from birth, irrespective of lifestyle, and response to treatment depends to a large extent on the type of LDLR mutation and residual LDLR activity. FH homozygotes develop severe atherosclerosis in early childhood, initially in the aortic root, causing supravalvular aortic stenosis and then involving the coronary ostia and arteries. If treatment to reduce LDL cholesterol is not initiated in early childhood or is inadequate, FH homozygotes die of myocar-dial infarction very early in life, often in the first decade (Goldstein et al., 2001 Thompson, 1999). In patients with heterozygous FH, serum LDL cholesterol levels are lower than in homozygotes and clinical prognosis depends much more on other genetic and environmental factors (Hill et al.,...

Clinical Considerations

Rectal Nerve Block

Pelvic relaxation is the weakening or loss of support of the pelvic organs because of damage to the pelvic diaphragm, urogenital diaphragm, transverse cervical ligament, uterosacral ligament, or pubocervical ligament. It may result in cystocele (prolapse of the urinary bladder into the anterior vaginal wall), rectocele (prolapse of the rectum into the posterior vaginal wall), or uterine prolapse (prolapse of the uterus into the vaginal vault). Pelvic relaxation may result from multiple childbirths birth trauma increased intraabdominal pressure because of obesity, heavy lifting, or chronic cough or menopausal loss of muscle tone. Clinical signs include a heavy sensation in the lower abdomen that is exacerbated by heavy lifting or prolonged standing increased B. Pudendal nerve block (Figure 16-2) is used to provide perineal anesthesia during forceps delivery in childbirth. A pudendal nerve block is performed in the following way a 1 lidocaine solution is injected transvaginal or just...

Evidence for Ovarian Senescence in Rhesus Monkeys

Female Lifespan Ovarian Reserve

The number of potentially viable oocytes available to the reproducing female depends on the size of the primordial follicle population within the ovary. In humans, primarily due to follicular atresia and secondarily because of follicular recruitment, the numbers of primordial follicles decrease dramatically from birth to the onset of menopause. At the end of the reproductive lifespan, the ''ovarian reserve'' of viable follicles and oocytes is essentially depleted, and the ovary is said to be senescent (Faddy and Gosden, 1996). Concomitantly, ovulatory activity ceases and levels of estrogen decrease markedly. As a result, FSH secretion increases strikingly because of diminished negative feedback from estrogen (Walker, 1995). Bioactive FSH retrieved from postmeno-pausal women's urine was in high demand for a number primary follicles is gonadotropin-dependent (Macklon and Fauser, 1999), many of the newly formed primary follicles in older females cease development or become atretic,...

Biosurveillance Of The Healthcare System

6 Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-65), a Hungarian obstetrician, introduced antiseptic prophylaxis into medicine. In the 1840s, puerperal or childbirth fever, a bacterial infection of the female genital tract after childbirth, was taking the lives of up to 30 of women who gave birth in hospitals. Women who gave birth at home remained relatively unaffected. Semmelweis observed that women examined by student doctors who had not washed their hands after leaving the autopsy room had very high death rates. When a colleague who had received a scalpel cut died of infection, Semmelweis concluded that puerperal fever was septic and contagious. He ordered students to wash their hands with chlorinated lime before examining patients as a result, the maternal death rate in his hospital was reduced from 12 to 1 in two years. Source Copyright 1999,2000.

Development Of Intestinal Microbiota In Dogs And Cats

Intestinal colonization is a gradual process starting immediately after birth. In newborn puppies and kittens the alimentary canal is sterile but is quickly inhabited by bacteria from birth canal and environment. The dam usually licks the newborn thoroughly thus transferring its own indigenous bacteria to her offspring. Within 24 hours the numbers of bacteria in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn puppy are similar to those of an adult dog (2).

Delayed fertilization

Sperm storage occurs in bats inhabiting northern temperate regions such as the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), and also in many bats such as noctule (Nyctalus noctula). In the little brown bat, the testes become scrotal in the spring, and most sperm production is completed by September. The sperm are then stored until copulation commences months later. Females are inseminated in the fall and winter, while they are in hibernation. Sperm are then stored again, this time in the female reproductive tract, the uterus, where they remain motile for almost 200 days in the noctule. Females ovu-late much later, and active development of the embryos starts in the spring. For bats, delayed fertilization allows males to copulate when they are in best condition in the fall, and parturition to occur just prior to emergence of insects. Because of the energy required for copulation, mating in the spring would be at the time of worst male condition. Delayed fertilization also allows females to...

Superior Illiac Spine

Illiac Crest Blood Vessels

The lesser pelvis is bounded posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx, and laterally and anteriorly by the lower ilium, ischium, and pubis bones. This portion of the pelvis surrounds a short, canal-like cavity that has an upper inlet and a lower outlet. An infant passes through this cavity during childbirth. Some basic structural differences distinguish the male and the female pelves, even though it may be difficult to find all of the typical characteristics in any one individual. These differences arise from the function of the female pelvis as a birth canal. Usually, the female iliac bones are more flared than those of the male, and consequently, the female hips are usually broader than the male's. The angle of the female pubic arch may be greater, there may be more distance between the ischial spines and the ischial tuberosities, and the sacral cur

Interalar Distance Nasal Width

Remarks Values for nasal width from birth to age 16 years are shown in Fig. 7.73. There is tremendous variation both within and between ethnic groups in the interalar distance. Nasal width, like most facial widths, continues to increase with age, mainly due to soft tissue changes.

Comparing Acute And Chronic Leukemia

The type of cell that predominates in the peripheral blood and the bone marrow is defined according to cell lineage as either myeloid or lymphoid. The myeloid stem cell gives birth to granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and erythrocytes (see Fig. 2.3). Therefore, as will be described in the various sections of this chapter, the myeloid leukemias can involve proliferation of any stage of these four cell lines. By contrast, the lymphoid stem cell gives rise solely to lymphocytic lineage cells.

Gestation and neonate type

Period Gestation

With only a few exceptions, each mammal species has a characteristic gestation period that shows remarkably little variation. In comparisons between species, gestation periods tend to increase as body size increases. However, effective comparisons of gestation periods among mammals must take into account a fundamental distinction in the state of the neonate at birth. As a general rule, it is possible to distinguish fairly clearly between mammals that give birth to several poorly developed (altricial) offspring and those that give birth to a few (usually just one) well-developed (precocial) offspring. Altricial offspring are largely hairless at birth and their eyes and ears are sealed with membranes. They are relatively helpless at birth and are typically deposited in a nest. By contrast, precocial offspring, which are usually born with a well-developed coat of hair and with their eyes and ears open, are typically able to move around quite actively at birth and are rarely kept in a...

Odontoid Process With Blood Vessels

The sacrum forms the posterior wall of the pelvic cavity. The upper anterior margin of the sacrum, which represents the body of the first sacral vertebra, is called the sacral promontory (sa'kral prom'on-tore). During a vaginal examination, a physician can feel this projection and use it as a guide in determining the size of the pelvis. This measurement is helpful in estimating how easily an infant may be able to pass through a woman's pelvic cavity during childbirth.

Varicella Zoster Virus Infections during Pregnancy

At any stage during pregnancy, chickenpox may cause intrauterine infection. Maternal varicella resulting in viremia may transmit the virus to the fetus by either transplacental spread, or by ascending infection from lesions in the birth canal. Furthermore, direct contact or respiratory droplet can lead to infection after birth. The consequences for the infant depend on the time of maternal disease. They range from asymptomatic infection to fetal loss especially in case of severe maternal disease. Primary VZV infection during first two trimesters

Community Organizing In Urban Neighborhoods

Although building social networks and social capital to solve community problems has merit on its own, it can also indirectly promote public health social support and friendship ties reduce mortality and morbidity (House, et al., 1988 Semenza, et al., 1996, Semenza, et al., 1999) lack of trust between neighborhood residents is associated with increased risk of death from cardiovascular diseases (Kawachi, et al., 1997) and in U.S. states with lower levels of social capital, self-reported health is poorer, controlling for individual risk factors (Lochner, et al., 1999 Kawachi, et al., 1999). Social capital has also been related to mental health in adolescents (Aneshensel and Sucoff, 1996), adolescent birth rates (Denner, et al., 2001), and firearm deaths (Kennedy, et al., 1998).

Gnotobiotic Ruminants in Studies into the Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The set-up of digestive processes that affect both degradation of the lignocellulose-rich feeds and fermentation of the resulting soluble compounds. Ecological factors controlling the establishment of cellulotytic bacteria and ciliate protozoa in the lamb rumen were studied in meroxenic lambs (92). The results obtained in this study suggested that the establishment of cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa required an abundant and complex microbiota and was favored by an early inoculation of the animals. All above-mentioned results point at the extremely important role of the microbiota in the development of the rumen. There is a good relationship between the development of rumen function and the complexity of its microbiota. The presence of a simple microbiota cannot assure the digestive function as properly as a complex microbiota can. Bomba and coworkers (93) used the gnotobiotic approach to observe the development of rumen fermentation in lambs from birth up to 7 weeks of age in...

Reproduction in marsupials

Marsupials have the tiniest young in relation to adult size. In the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), young at birth weigh less than 0.0001 of the female mass. Put into context, this would be similar to a 150 lb (68 kg) human female giving birth to individual babies that would each weigh 0.0048 lbs (22 g), or 0.08 oz. But extreme altriciality is not a disadvantage in evolutionary terms. In fact, many scientists believe that this is instead a great advantage as the small investment in each neonate allows females to minimize investment in young and be more flexible and responsive to environmental conditions. Mechanistically, if environmental conditions become too tough to raise young successfully, starvation would terminate the production of milk and lead to rapid death of young, thereby saving energy lost (versus pla-cental mammals that have a greater energy investment). This would give marsupial females a competitive advantage over animals with internal pregnancy (placental...

African brushtailed porcupine

Form pair bonds before mating, which is necessary because the female acts out in aggression against males with whom she is not familiar (such as raising her quills to halt the mating process). No clearly defined breeding period, up to two litters are possible each year. Females normally give birth to one, sometimes two, young per litter. Gestation period ranges from 100-110 days, after which the mother gives birth to well-developed young. At

Postnatal Growth In Human Birth To Maturity

Height Velocity Curves

A small sex difference is present from birth that reaches about 1.0 cm in favor of boys by 5 years of age. The adult sex difference of 12.5-13.0 cm develops gradually prior to and during the pubertal growth spurt (see Chapter 1). For many purposes, the velocity curve can be more informative than that for distance. Three mayor phases of the growth curve can be identified a rapidly decelerating phase, from birth to approximately 2-3 years a slowly decelerating phase, from 3 years up to the start of the adolescent growth spurt and the adolescent growth spurt itself. In this chapter we are concerned with the first and second phases.

Methods And Measures Measuring Infant Mortality

Conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which after such separation breathes or shows any other evidence of life'' and death as the permanent disappearance of life any time after live birth has taken place'' (United Nations 2001 13). The infant mortality rate is conventionally measured as the number of deaths to infants under one year of age in a given year, per 1,000 live births in the same year. However, not all infant deaths occur in the calendar year of birth, so that the IMR as just defined is not a probability based on the population at risk. A true probability can be computed directly from birth cohort data of the sort routinely made available in the Linked Birth Infant Death Files by the US National Center for Vital Statistics (NCHS). Shryock and Siegel (1976) refer to the computation based on birth cohorts as the infant death rate. In the absence of substantial year-to-year fluctuations, the infant mortality rate and the infant death rate will be similar in...

Testimony on the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004

Despite all of these well-known health consequences, for approximately the last eight years, American consumers have been able to walk into their corner nutrition store and buy products containing androstenedione. In 1998, after certain popular professional athletes acknowledged using androstenedione, sales of these supplements in the United States, particularly among teenagers, dramatically increased. The popular demand for androstenedione gave birth to an entire industry. Now the nutrition store shelves, and the internet, are flooded with products containing various steroid precursors. For example, 19-norandrostenedione, which metabolizes in the body into the steroid nandrolone, another controlled substance, is present in hundreds of over-the-counter products.

Severe Chronic Neutropenia Patients

In patients with Kostmann's syndrome who developed leukemia, acquired G-CSF receptor mutations affecting the cytoplasmic domain were present in most patients tested (22-25), suggestive of an important role of these mutations in the leukemogenesis. None of the G-CSF receptor mutations was detectable from birth, indicating that these mutations are not causative for the neutropenia. A small subgroup of patients develops these mutations during the course of life, most likely caused by genetic instability. G-CSF receptor analyses cannot be used to discriminate between the different diseases causing severe neutropenia, but they might be helpful for screening for risk of leukemia. The

Information Of Mammals Foreword

The revision of these volumes could not come at a more opportune time. In fact, there is a desperate need for a deeper understanding and appreciation of our natural world. Many species are classified as threatened or endangered, and the situation is expected to get much worse before it gets better. Species extinction has always been part of the evolutionary history of life some organisms adapt to changing circumstances and some do not. However, the current rate of species loss is now estimated to be 1,000-10,000 times the normal background rate of extinction since life began on Earth some 4 billion years ago. The primary factor responsible for this decline in biological diversity is the exponential growth of human populations, combined with peoples' unsustainable appetite for natural resources, such as land, water, minerals, oil, and timber. The world's human population now exceeds 6 billion, and even though the average birth rate has begun to decline, most demographers believe that...

Other Uses

Adhatoda is traditionally used to treat cough, asthma, bronchitis and colds, but has also been used to treat fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, jaundice, to stimulate the birthing process and aid healing afterwards, tuberculosis, headache, and as an antispasmodic (Claeson et al 2000). It has also been used as an abortifacient in some Indian villages.


The birthing season is a time when females of many species seek out specific habitats that provide them greater security for giving birth and for protecting the newborn young. Depending on species, such secure habitats for parturition can range from dense brush to steep cliffs. The mating season, or rut, in some species of Bovidae, also occurs in particular ar

Ages and Stages

Western societies have typically viewed the human life span as consisting of a series of periods or stages, beginning with conception and ending in death. The prenatal stage, from conception until birth, is divided into the germinal period (first 2 weeks), the embryonic period (2-8 weeks), and the fetal period. The time from birth to the end of the second year is infancy, and early childhood is the preschool period from 2 to 5 or 6 years. Middle childhood is from age 6 to puberty, and adolescence is from the start of puberty to age 20 (or adulthood). The third and fourth decades of life (ages 20-40) are known as early adulthood, age 40 to 65 is middle adulthood, and

Galeocerdo cuvier

Behavior and reproduction Tiger sharks are mostly nocturnal (nahk-TER-nuhl), or active at night, and strong-swimming. They usually swim alone. These sharks appear sluggish because they cruise at slow speeds near the surface. Young tiger sharks develop inside the female. The female gives birth to ten to eighty-two young that are 20 to 30 inches (51 to 76 centimeters) long.

The Message

I dedicate this chapter to Bernard Dujon, who gave birth to this field, and who beautifully illustrated the message, that is, to study the fundamentals, to be vigilant, and then to seize the opportunities for application. I am grateful to all of the authors who contributed to this book and particularly to my coeditors Vicky Derbyshire, Barry Stoddard and Dave Wood, who have, through their hard work and shared insights, helped make this volume come to life. I thank Maryellen Carl for preparing this manuscript and handling the 19 others, and John Dansereau for providing the figures. Work in our laboratory is supported by NIH grants GM39422 and GM44844 and NSF grant NIRT0210419.

Maternal behavior

New evidence regarding maternal behavior is likely to arise from the study of certain viviparous snakes. Several investigators have reported that female rattlesnakes remain with or very near their litters for several days after parturition. Initially this behavior was considered unimportant, perhaps the result of maternal exhaustion from the act of giving birth. Now it has been hypothesized that maternal attendance of neonates may be more than an artifact of exhaustion. Perhaps the fitness of the neonates is enhanced by the mother's presence, and this means her fitness may be enhanced. The general idea is that the mother's presence may discourage predators who would otherwise take a toll on the neonates. The mother's presence also may allow the neonates to become familiar with her odors and use them to find their way to the hibernaculum. That is, the neonates might locate the den by trailing familiar odors deposited by the mother. None of these ideas has been subjected to rigorous...

Anthony J Cortese

The proportion of the population that is elderly is growing increasingly larger. This will have an important impact on health care delivery systems. Disproportionately high birth rates for ethnic minorities and near-record rates of immigration from Mexico, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia have significantly altered demographics in U.S. society. These changes in the ethnic composition

The Moran model

Moran (1958a) proposed an alternative model to the Wright-Fisher model. Moran's model has overlapping generations, in contrast to the Wright-Fisher model that has non-overlapping generations. The population consists of 2N haploid individuals or genes. (A diploid version can be formulated as well. Here we focus on the haploid version for convenience.) A new generation is formed from the previous generation by sampling randomly one gene to give birth to a new gene, and one gene to die, see Figure 1.20. The gene that dies is not allowed to be the gene chosen to give birth. (Other formulations of the Moran model allow for the two genes to be one and the same.) All other genes survive to the next generation. The way the Moran model is constructed automatically rules out the possibility of multiple coalescent events in the same generation or that more than two genes share the same common ancestor in the previous generation. Figure 1.20 The Moran model. Shown is a few overlapping generations...

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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