Classifications of Hodgkins disease

In contrast to non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), which have undergone many changes in classification, the organizational scheme for Hodgkin's disease has remained remarkably stable for almost 40 years. The first useful classification of Hodgkin's disease was published in 1947 by Jackson and Parker in their book Hodgkin's Disease and Allied Disorders.13 HL was divided into three histologic types paragranuloma, granuloma, and sarcoma (Table 11-1). However, this division was not helpful in predicting...

References

Multiple myeloma evolving genetic events and host interactions. Nat Rev Cancer 2002 2 175-187. 2. Fonseca R, Bailey RJ, Ahmann GJ, Rajkumar SV, Hoyer JD, Lust JA, Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Greipp PR, Dewald GW. Genomic abnormalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Blood 2002 1000 1417-1424. 3. Zandecki M, Lai JL, Genevieve F, Bernardi F, Volle-Remy H, Blanchet O, Francois M Cosson A, Bauters F, Facon T. Several cytogenetics subclones may be identified...

Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposition Diseases

Primary amyloidosis (AL) and light chain deposition disease (LCDD) are disorders caused by monoclonal plasma cell populations that over-synthesize free immunoglobulin light chains, which are deposited in tissues. Patients with these disorders most frequently present with symptoms of organ dysfunction due to the immunoglobulin deposition, along with weakness, fatigue, and weight loss. Kidney and liver involvement is common, while cardiac involvement has a particularly bad prognosis.106 A...

Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma

In the Lukes Butler classification, NLP HL was divided into two morphologic subtypes nodular and diffuse.14,15 In the Rye scheme, it was simply called NLP HL. In the REAL WHO classification, NLP HL is defined as having at least a partially nodular growth pattern, although diffuse areas may be present in a minority of cases.1,19 Table 11-1 Although there is still controversy about whether a purely diffuse LP HL exists, this entity is not recognized as a distinct category in the WHO scheme. The...

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Most published series of patients with ALL indicate that more than 85 have an abnormal clone by conventional cytogenetic studies. At least 36 chromosome anomalies are common in ALL. The most common karyotype among children with ALL is hyperdiploidy. This karyotype is associated with a good prognosis in the absence of any structural anomalies and when associated with trisomies of chromosomes 4, 10 and 17.90 The most common chromosome translocations in pediatric ALL include t 9 22 q34 q11.2 , t...

Angiogenesis In Myelodysplastic Syndrome Mds And Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Numerous groups have documented increased vascularity in bone marrow biopsies of patients with AML22-29 and MDS,23, 29-31 as compared to normal control bone marrow biopsies. In our study26 we specifically looked at angiogenesis in acute promyelocytic leukemia APL , which is a subtype of AML. We showed that bone marrow angiogenesis is increased in APL, and is decreased after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. A similar decrease in angiogenesis, after therapy, has been seen in other subtypes...

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Four cytogenetic risk categories of AML are widely applied in clinical practice favorable, intermediate, unfavorable, and unknown.78,79 Consequently, it is important to perform appropriate cytogenetic and FISH studies to establish the correct cytogenetic risk category to decide appropriate treatment. The favorable cytogenetic risk category anomalies include t 15 17 q22 q21 and variants with or without other chromosome anomalies, with or without other chromosome anomalies and t 8 21 q22 q22...

Future Developments 31 Extended Differential Counts

Once the potential of current technologies is realized, there are several exciting developments that will be available for clinical use in the near future. Among the most imminent of these functions is the automated extended differential count EDC . Currently, automated leukocyte differential counts are highly accurate and precise, but they are limited by the inability of typical analyzers to precisely quantify abnormal cell types and certain granulocyte forms metamyelocytes, myelocytes,...

Ancillary Studies For Diagnosis And Subclassification Of Ml

The WHO classification for ML 30 emphasizes the importance of clinical features combined with morphological, immunophenotypic and genotypic characteristics for diagnosis and categorization of ML and postulates a cell of origin for each neoplasm, which in many cases reflects the stage of differentiation of the malignant cell.30 Small - Chronic Round - Large cell leukemia small chromatin immunoblastic lymphocytic lymphoma with Large - Large cell Convoluted - Follicular Carcinoma chromatin -...

Autoverification in the Clinical Hematology Laboratory

As analytical methods in automated laboratories become faster and more efficient, the rate-determining step for the release of information to the patient record is no longer the generation of data, but our ability to process and manage data. Medical technologists are responsible for numerous complex and integrated tasks in the clinical laboratory that require subjective or interpretive skill. In addition to these necessarily manual tasks, however, many of the decisions made by medical...