Gingival Crevicular Fluid

GCF is an inflammatory exudate originating from the leaky venules next to the oral sulcular and junctional epithelia. An increase in the flow rate of GCF has been associated with inflammatory changes in the gingival tissues, secondary to bacterial infection (reviewed in Tonetti et al., 1998). In addition to salivary PMN and macrophages that exude through the oral junctional and sulcular epithelia into the GCF, the GCF also contains relatively high levels of Table 2.1. Oral Innate Effector...

Histopathologic Characteristics

Chronic hyperplastic or pseudomembra-nous candidiasis is a form of infection with distinct clinical and histopathological characteristics. The histologic features of this infection include a hyperplastic and parak-eratotic response of the surface epithelium, which is invaded by hyphal organisms. The inflammatory infiltrate consists primarily of PMN, which form microabscesses within the epithelium, whereas very few PMN are found within the lamina propria in association with blood vessels...

Humoral Immunity against Oral Candidiasis

A variety of studies have attempted to address the question of whether antibodies might be protective, in which case they might be expected to be higher in controls than in patients, or whether antibodies might reflect the antigenic load in which case they would be expected to be higher in patients than in controls. Studies of antibodies in humans in oral candidiasis have used both serum and saliva, with the main objectives of identifying responses in relation to clinical disease or sometimes...

Peroxidase and Myeloperoxidase

Peroxidase originates from two main sources in the oral cavity. Salivary peroxidase is synthesized by acinar cells in major salivary glands and myeloperoxidase (MPO) is derived from the neutrophil primary granules. Monocytes also contain MPO in their primary granules, whereas macrophages are known to lack this enzyme (Marodi et al., 1991). These enzymes combine with H2O2 and thiocyanate or iodide ions to produce hypothiocyanate, or hypoiodite, which are powerful oxidizing agents. In the...

The Paranasal Sinuses

Located within this framework of cartilage, bones, and turbinates are the four sinus cavities of the paranasal region. They function to humidify incoming air, filter out particulate matter present in respiration, aid in resonance, lighten the weight of the skull, and protect the brain and tissues from direct trauma. All the paranasal sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity via an opening in their tissue called the ostium. This small aperture allows for release of pressure and for drainage of...

Saps and Oral Humoral Immunity

The Saps appear to play a major role in virulence by mediating adherence, causing tissue damage, and evading of host immune responses (reviewed by Naglik et al., 2003b). Ten SAP genes have been identified that encode a proteinase family between 35 and 50 kDa (Hube, 2000), which include two major subfamilies based on nucleotide acid sequences identity (SAP1-3 and 4-6). The contribution of the Saps to C. albi-cans pathogenesis has been clearly demonstrated using SAP-deficient mutants and...

References

Abiko, Y., Suraweera, A.K., Nishimura, M., Arakawa, T., Takuma, T., Mizoguchi, I., and Kaku, T. (2001). Differential expression of human beta-defensin 2 in keratinized and non-keratinized oral epithelial lesions immunohis-tochemistry and in situ hybridization. Virchows Arch. 438 248-253. Abiko, Y., Jinbu, Y., Noguchi, T., Nishimura, M., Kusano, K., Amaratunga, P., Shibata, T., and Kaku, T. (2002). Upregulation of human beta-defensin 2 peptide expression in oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and...

Host Immune Responses to Saps

Very few studies have investigated the interaction between Saps and the host immune response. While high titres of anti-Sap IgG antibodies have been demonstrated in sera of candidiasis patients Macdonald and Odds, 1980 Riichel and Boning, 1983 Ruchel et al., 1988 , few detailed studies on mucosal antibody responses, using saliva or vaginal secretions, against the Saps have been performed. However, recently two reports have addressed this. In a small study of six patients with oral candidiasis...

Cellular Anatomy and Physiology

The nasal cavity, turbinates, and paranasal sinuses are lined with mucosa comprised of four distinct nasal epithelium populations olfactory epithelium OE , stratified squa-mous epithelium SE , respiratory epithelium RE , and nonciliated cuboidal columnar epithelium NCE , also known as transitional epithelium. Each type has its own unique cell populations and distribution throughout the nasal cavity. SE lines the external nares and vestibule of the nose, RE covers most of the nasoturbinates,...

Stephen J Challacombe Durdana Rahman Mukesh Mistry and Julian R Naglik

Host Factors Predisposing to Oral 3. Classification of Oral Candida 4. General Considerations of Oral Mucosal Immunity to 5. Humoral Immunity against Oral 5.1. Saps and Oral Humoral 5.2. Host Immune Responses to 5.3. Functional Aspects of Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida 46 5.4. Oral Immunity to Candida in HIV 5.5. Serum Antibodies Responses to Oral Candida Infection in Humans 47 5.6. Salivary IgA Subclass Antibodies to 6. Innate Factors against Oral Candidiasis 6.1. Epithelial Cell...

Tobias E Rodriguez12 Jack R Harkema3 and Gary B Huffnagle

The Nasal 2.2. The Paranasal 2.3. Cellular Anatomy and 2.4. The Role of Nasal Physiology in 3. Classifications of Fungal Sinusitis 3.1. Noninvasive Fungal Masses Fungal 3.2. Invasive Fungal 3.3. Chronic Rhinosinusitis 3.4. Allergic Fungal 4. Summary

The Nasal Cavity

The nasal cavity connects the nares to the nasopharynx by way of the posterior nasal aperture Cooper, 1994 . In humans the nasal cavity is estimated to be 16 cm3 in volume Harkema, 1992 . The cavity is divided laterally by the nasal septum, which is comprised of cartilage more distally and bone more proximally. The cavity itself is enclosed by the lateral walls, a complicated structure containing portions of several bones three of which form the foundation for the nasal turbinates see Fig. 1.1...

Calprotectin

Calprotectin is a protein complex consisting of two noncovalently linked peptide chains that are abundantly synthesized by neutrophils, monocytes, certain subpopulations of macrophages, and squamous epithelia, such as oral epithelium and activated epidermal keratinocytes reviewed in Brandtzaeg et al., 1995 . In situ hybridization studies revealed that calprotectin is synthesized in the upper and middle spinous cell layers in the oral mucosa in oral can-didiasis as well as normal tissues, with...

Oral Microbial Ecology

The oral mucosa is colonized by over 200 microbial species. Thus, the potential for bacterial and fungal infections is high, with a need for innate defense mechanisms. The oral cavity is comprised of at least four microbial ecological niches with a certain degree of variability in the composition of their indigenous flora the saliva, the tongue, and the tooth-associated supragingival and subgingival plaques Slots, 1992 . The most predominant indigenous bacterial flora in saliva, tongue and...

Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

Within invasive fungal sinusitis there are two distinct subtypes, acute and chronic. Acute sinusitis occurs in immunocompro-mised hosts bone marrow transplant patients, HIV, etc. and generally lasts for less than 4 weeks. In the literature it is commonly referred to as fulminant sinusitis, conveying the rapid disease progression and destruction affiliated with the infection Ferguson, 2000a . Characteristically the disease progresses in a matter of days, with hyphal growth and extension pushing...